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Chuong 11

Chuong 11

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Published by: api-3768589 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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\ue000
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 11: T\u1ef0 \u0110\u1ed8NG\u0110I\u1ec0U CH\u1ec8NH\u0110I\u1ec6N
\u00c1P V\u00c0 C\u00d4NG SU\u1ea4T PH\u1ea2N KH\u00c1NG
I. Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m chung:

Duy tr\u00ec\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p b\u00ecnh th\u01b0\u1eddng l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t trong nh\u1eefng bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng\u0111i\u1ec7n n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng\u0111i\u1ec7n.\u0110i\u1ec7n \u00e1p gi\u1ea3m th\u1ea5p qu\u00e1 m\u1ee9c c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 g\u00e2y n\u00ean\u0111\u1ed9 tr\u01b0\u1ee3t qu\u00e1 l\u1edbn\u1edf c\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 kh\u00f4ng\u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9, d\u1eabn\u0111\u1ebfn q\u00faa t\u1ea3i v\u1ec1 c\u00f4ng su\u1ea5t ph\u1ea3n kh\u00e1ng\u1edf c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n\u0111i\u1ec7n.\u0110i\u1ec7n \u00e1p gi\u1ea3m th\u1ea5p c\u0169ng l\u00e0m gi\u1ea3m hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 ph\u00e1t s\u00e1ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c\u0111\u00e8n chi\u1ebfu s\u00e1ng, l\u00e0m gi\u1ea3m kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng truy\u1ec1n t\u1ea3i c\u1ee7a\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y v\u00e0\u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng\u0111\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed9 \u1ed5n\u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c song song.\u0110i\u1ec7n \u00e1p t\u0103ng cao c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0m gi\u00e0 c\u1ed7i c\u00e1ch\u0111i\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb\u0111i\u1ec7n (l\u00e0m t\u0103ng d\u00f2ng r\u00f2) v\u00e0 th\u1eadm ch\u00ed c\u00f3 th\u1ec3\u0111\u00e1nh th\u1ee7ng c\u00e1ch\u0111i\u1ec7n l\u00e0m h\u01b0 h\u1ecfng thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb.

\u0110i\u1ec7n \u00e1p t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c \u0111i\u1ec3m n\u00fat trong h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng\u0111i\u1ec7n\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c duy tr\u00ec\u1edf m\u1ed9t gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb \u0111\u1ecbnh tr\u01b0\u1edbc

nh\u1edd c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng ph\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ee9c v\u1eadn h\u00e0nh h\u1ee3p l\u00ed, ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n nh\u01b0 t\u1eadn d\u1ee5ng c\u00f4ng su\u1ea5t ph\u1ea3n kh\u00e1ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t ho\u1eb7c m\u00e1y b\u00f9\u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9, ng\u0103n ng\u1eeba qu\u00e1 t\u1ea3i t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c ph\u1ea7n t\u1eed trong h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng\u0111i\u1ec7n, t\u0103ng v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3m t\u1ea3i h\u1ee3p l\u00ed c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00e2y truy\u1ec1n t\u1ea3i, ch\u1ecdn t\u1ef7 s\u1ed1 bi\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ed5i th\u00edch h\u1ee3p\u1edf c\u00e1c m\u00e1y bi\u1ebfn \u00e1p ...

\u0110i\u1ec7n \u00e1p c\u0169ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c duy tr\u00ec nh\u1edd c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecbt\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh k\u00edch t\u1eeb(T\u0110K)
c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t\u0111i\u1ec7n v\u00e0 m\u00e1y b\u00f9\u0111\u1ed3ng b\u1ed9, c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb t\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng thay\u0111\u1ed5i t\u1ef7 s\u1ed1 bi\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ed5i c\u1ee7a
m\u00e1y bi\u1ebfn \u00e1p, c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb t\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng thay\u0111\u1ed5i dung l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c t\u1ee5 b\u00f9 t\u0129nh ...
II. Thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb T\u0110K:
Thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb t\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng\u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh k\u00edch t\u1eeb (T\u0110K)\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng\u0111\u1ec3 duy tr\u00ec\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p theo m\u1ed9t
\u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh \u0111\u1ecbnh tr\u01b0\u1edbc v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n ph\u1ed1i ph\u1ee5t\u1ea3i ph\u1ea3n kh\u00e1ng gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n cung c\u1ea5p trong
t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c b\u00ecnh th\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng\u0111i\u1ec7n.
II.1. C\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n t\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng\u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh k\u00edch t\u1eeb:
M\u00e1y ph\u00e1t\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng b\u1eb1ng s\u1ee9c\u0111i\u1ec7n\u0111\u1ed9ng EF v\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec7n kh\u00e1ng XF (h\u00ecnh 11.5). \u00c1p
\u0111\u1ea7uc\u1ef1c m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh theo bi\u1ec3u th\u1ee9c :
U
E jI X
F
F
F
F
.
.
.
= \u2212
(11.2)
N\u1ebfu EF = const, khi IF thay\u0111\u1ed5i th\u00ec UF thay\u0111\u1ed5i,\u0111\u1ec3 gi\u1eef UF = const th\u00ec ph\u1ea3i thay\u0111\u1ed5i
EF t\u1ee9c l\u00e0 thay\u0111\u1ed5i k\u00edch t\u1eeb m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t.
Theo nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng, thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb t\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9ng\u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chia th\u00e0nh 3
nh\u00f3m:
\ue000\u0110i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p theo\u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ec7ch c\u1ee7a\u0111\u1ea1i l\u01b0\u1ee3ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh (v\u00ed d\u1ee5, theo\u0111\u1ed9
l\u1ec7ch c\u1ee7a UF).
\ue000\u0110i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p t\u00f9y thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng nhi\u1ec5u (v\u00ed d\u1ee5, theo d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y
ph\u00e1t IF , theo g\u00f3c\u03d5 gi\u1eefa\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p v\u00e0 d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t, ...).
160
\ue000\u0110i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p theo\u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ec7ch c\u1ee7a\u0111\u1ea1i l\u01b0\u1ee3ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh v\u00e0 theo t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng
nhi\u1ec5u.
H\u00ecnh 11.5 : S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 thay th\u1ebf v\u00e0\u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb v\u00e9ct\u01a1\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t
\u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t \u0111i\u1ec7n d\u00f9ng m\u00e1y k\u00edch th\u00edch m\u1ed9t chi\u1ec1u, c\u00e1c thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb \u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh
\u0111i\u1ec7n \u00e1p c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 chia th\u00e0nh 2 nh\u00f3m:

a) Thay\u0111\u1ed5i k\u00edch t\u1eeb m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t nh\u1edd thay\u0111\u1ed5i RKT trong m\u1ea1ch cu\u1ed9n k\u00edch t\u1eeb WKT c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y k\u00edch th\u00edch KT m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch t\u1eeb t\u1eeb nh\u1edd con tr\u01b0\u1ee3t (h\u00ecnh 11.6 a) ho\u1eb7c n\u1ed1i t\u1eaft m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n RKT theo chu k\u1ef3 (h\u00ecnh 11.6 b).

H\u00ecnh 11.6 : Thay\u0111\u1ed5i k\u00edch t\u1eeb m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t nh\u1edd thay\u0111\u1ed5i RKT

b) Thay\u0111\u1ed5i k\u00edch t\u1eeb m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t nh\u1edd d\u00f2ng k\u00edch t\u1eeb ph\u1ee5 IKTf t\u1ef7 l\u1ec7 v\u1edbi\u2206U ho\u1eb7c IF ho\u1eb7c c\u1ea3 2\u0111\u1ea1i l\u01b0\u1ee3ng\u2206U v\u00e0 IF. D\u00f2ng k\u00edch t\u1eeb ph\u1ee5 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o cu\u1ed9n k\u00edch t\u1eeb ch\u00ednh WKT(h\u00ecnh 11.7 a) ho\u1eb7c cu\u1ed9n k\u00edch t\u1eeb ph\u1ee5 WKTf (h\u00ecnh 11.7 b) c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y k\u00edch th\u00edch.

161
H\u00ecnh 11.7 : Thay\u0111\u1ed5i k\u00edch t\u1eeb m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t nh\u1edd d\u00f2ng k\u00edch t\u1eeb ph\u1ee5
II.2. Compun d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n:

Thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb compun d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ed9ng theo nhi\u1ec5u d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n IF c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t. S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac c\u1ee7a thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb compun k\u00edch t\u1eeb m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t nh\u01b0 h\u00ecnh 11.8. D\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 c\u1ea5p I2 c\u1ee7a BI t\u1ef7 l\u1ec7 v\u1edbi d\u00f2ng IF. D\u00f2ng n\u00e0y bi\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ed5i qua m\u00e1y bi\u1ebfn \u00e1p trung gian BTG,\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ec9nh l\u01b0u v\u00e0\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c

\u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o cu\u1ed9n k\u00edch t\u1eebWKT c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y k\u00edch th\u00edch. D\u00f2ng \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ec9nh l\u01b0u IK g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 d\u00f2ng

compun\u0111i v\u00e0o cu\u1ed9n WKT c\u00f9ng h\u01b0\u1edbng v\u1edbi d\u00f2ng IKT t\u1eeb m\u00e1y k\u00edch th\u00edch. Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady d\u00f2ng t\u1ed5ng (IKT+ IK) trong cu\u1ed9n k\u00edch t\u1eeb WKT c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y k\u00edch th\u00edch ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c v\u00e0o d\u00f2ng IFc\u1ee7a m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t.

Bi\u1ebfn \u00e1p BTG\u0111\u1ec3 c\u00e1ch ly m\u1ea1ch k\u00edch t\u1eeb c\u1ee7a m\u00e1y k\u00edch th\u00edch v\u1edbi m\u1ea1ch th\u1ee9 BI c\u00f3\u0111i\u1ec3m n\u1ed1i\u0111\u1ea5t, ngo\u00e0i ra nh\u1edd ch\u1ecdn h\u1ec7 s\u1ed1 bi\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ed5i th\u00edch h\u1ee3p c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ph\u1ed1i h\u1ee3p d\u00f2ng th\u1ee9 I2 c\u1ee7a BI v\u1edbi d\u00f2ng compun IK.

Bi\u1ebfn tr\u1edf \u0111\u1eb7t R\u0111\u0111\u1ec3 thay\u0111\u1ed5i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch\u0111\u1ec1u\u0111\u1eb7n d\u00f2ng IK khi\u0111\u01b0a thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb compun v\u00e0o
l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c, c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 khi t\u00e1ch n\u00f3 ra.
H\u00ecnh 11.8 : S\u01a1 \u0111\u1ed3 c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac c\u1ee7a thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb compun k\u00edch t\u1eeb m\u00e1y ph\u00e1t

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