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Bao Ve Tot Nghiep

Bao Ve Tot Nghiep

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Published by: api-3829040 on Oct 18, 2008
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03/18/2014

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K\u00ddnh tha c\u00b8c th\u00c7y trong h\u00e9i \u00ae\u00e5ng!

1.Lu\u00cbn v\u00a8n t\u00abi b\u00b6o v\u00d6 h\u00abm nay c\u00e3 t\u00aan \u201c\u00f8ng d\u00f4ng c\u00f1a VHF Data link Mode 4 trong m\u00abi tr\u00eang CNS/ATM\u201d \u00ae\u00a9y l\u00b5 m\u00e9t h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng k\u00fc thu\u00cbt ph\u00f4c v\u00f4 cho c\u00abng t\u00b8c \u00aei\u00d2u h\u00b5nh trong ng\u00b5nh Qu\u00b6n l\u00fd bay d\u00a9n d\u00f4ng Vi\u00d6t Nam v\u00b5 tr\u00aan th\u00d5 gi\u00edi.

2. Tr\u00edc h\u00d5t t\u00abi xin b\u00bet \u00ae\u00c7u b\u00bbng l\u00e9 tr\u00d7nh c\u00f1a m\u00e9t chuy\u00d5n bay: L\u00e9 tr\u00d7nh m\u00e9t chuy\u00d5n bay b\u00cat k\u00fa bao g\u00e5m 3 giai \u00aeo\u00b9n l\u00b5 C\u00cat c\u00b8nh, Bay b\u00bbng v\u00b5 H\u00b9 c\u00b8nh. \u00a7\u00d3 \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o \u00aei\u00d2u h\u00b5nh kh\u00abng lu (Air Traffic Management) cho m\u00e9t chuy\u00d5n bay an to\u00b5n t\u00f5 \u00aei\u00d3m \u00ae\u00c7u \u00ae\u00d5n \u00aei\u00d3m cu\u00e8i nh tr\u00aan th\u00d7 ng\u00eai Ki\u00d3m so\u00b8t vi\u00aan kh\u00abng lu c\u00c7n ph\u00b6i \u00ae\u00eec h\u00e7 tr\u00ee b\u00ebi 3 h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng k\u00fc thu\u00cbt ch\u00ddnh l\u00b5 Th\u00abng tin li\u00aan l\u00b9c, Gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t v\u00b5 D\u00c9n \u00ae\u00eang.

3.H\u00d6 th\u00e8ng Gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t \u00ae\u00eec c\u00cau t\u00b9o b\u00ebi m\u00b9ng l\u00edi c\u00b8c Radar s\u00ac c\u00cap v\u00b5 th\u00f8 c\u00cap b\u00e8 tr\u00dd sao cho t\u00c7m ph\u00f1 \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o tr\u00efm k\u00ddn FIR. Qua s\u00e8 li\u00d6u c\u00b8c tr\u00b9m Radar truy\u00d2n v\u00d2 trung t\u00a9m, ng\u00eai KSVKL c\u00e3 th\u00d3 c\u00e3 \u00ae\u00eec m\u00e9t h\u00d7nh \u00b6nh to\u00b5n c\u00b6nh v\u00d2 v\u00de tr\u00dd, t\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9, \u00ae\u00e9 cao c\u00f1a c\u00b8c ph\u00acng ti\u00d6n giao th\u00abng tr\u00aan kh\u00abng (t\u00c7u bay - tr\u00b9m di \u00ae\u00e9ng) hay c\u00dfn g\u00e4i l\u00b5 m\u00b5n lu\u00e5ng kh\u00abng lu. H\u00d6 th\u00e8ng D\u00c9n \u00ae\u00eang l\u00b5 c\u00b8c \u00ae\u00b5i d\u00c9n \u00ae\u00eang VOR/DME, NDB ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng tr\u00aan c\u00b8c d\u00b6i t\u00c7n 108-117,975 MHz c\u00e3 t\u00b8c d\u00f4ng nh c\u00b8c c\u00e9t m\u00e8c tr\u00aan kh\u00abng gi\u00f3p ng\u00eai phi c\u00abng c\u00e3 th\u00d3 l\u00b5m m\u00e8c \u00ae\u00d3 \u00aei\u00d2u khi\u00d3n t\u00c7u bay bay \u00ae\u00f3ng h\u00edng. Cu\u00e8i c\u00efng, h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng th\u00abng tin li\u00aan l\u00b9c l\u00b5 m\u00b9ng c\u00b8c tr\u00b9m VHF ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng tr\u00aan b\u00a8ng t\u00c7n 118 - 136.975 MHz ph\u00a9n c\u00b8ch k\u00aanh 25kHz gi\u00f3p cho ng\u00eai KSVKL \u00ae\u00b5m tho\u00b9i v\u00edi phi c\u00abng \u00ae\u00d3 d\u00c9n d\u00bet m\u00b8y bay bay theo c\u00b8c \u00aei\u00d3m m\u00e8c t\u00edi \u00ae\u00ddch. Ngo\u00b5i ra vi\u00d6c \u00ae\u00b5m tho\u00b9i c\u00dfn gi\u00f3p m\u00c6t \u00ae\u00cat cung c\u00cap th\u00aam

c\u00b8c d\u00dech v\u00f4 kh\u00b8c nh Kh\u00dd t\u00eeng, \u00aei\u00d6n v\u00a8n, c\u00b8c th\u00abng b\u00b8o NOTAM
\u00ae\u00c6c bi\u00d6t.

4.V\u00edi ba h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng k\u00fc thu\u00cbt t\u00b8ch r\u00eai nh v\u00cby, qua tr\u00d7nh \u00aei\u00d2u h\u00b5nh bay s\u00cf g\u00c6p ph\u00b6i nhi\u00d2u kh\u00e3 kh\u00a8n, c\u00f4 th\u00d3 l\u00b5: Phi c\u00abng ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n \u201cm\u00ef\u201d, kh\u00abng c\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng quan s\u00b8t c\u00b8c lu\u00e5ng kh\u00abng lu \u00ae\u00d3 nh\u00cbn bi\u00d5t t\u00d7nh tr\u00b9ng m\u00e9t c\u00b8ch li\u00aan t\u00f4c m\u00b5 ph\u00b6i ph\u00f4 thu\u00e9c ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n v\u00b5o m\u00c6t \u00ae\u00cat. \u00a7i\u00d2u n\u00b5y c\u00f2ng \u00ae\u00c6t h\u00d5t c\u00b8c g\u00b8nh n\u00c6ng tr\u00b8ch nhi\u00d6m l\u00aan c\u00b8c KSVKL, n\u00aci m\u00b5 ph\u00b6i \u00aei\u00d2u h\u00b5nh r\u00cat nhi\u00d2u t\u00c7u bay kh\u00b8c trong v\u00efng. M\u00c6t kh\u00b8c, v\u00edi d\u00dea h\u00d7nh kh\u00abng ch\u00d8 c\u00e3 \u00ae\u00cat li\u00d2n m\u00b5 l\u00b5 c\u00b6 v\u00efng xa x\u00abi v\u00b5 v\u00efng bi\u00d3n th\u00d7 h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng d\u00c9n \u00ae\u00eang kh\u00abng th\u00d3 \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o l\u00e9 tr\u00d7nh t\u00e8i u cho c\u00b8c chuy\u00d5n bay, c\u00b8c t\u00c7u bay ph\u00b6i bay d\u00ddch d\u00bec theo c\u00b8c \u00ae\u00b5i d\u00c9n \u00ae\u00eang \u00ae\u00d3 t\u00edi \u00ae\u00ddch, \u00aei\u00d2u n\u00b5y l\u00b5m chi ph\u00dd cho m\u00e9t chuy\u00d5n bay t\u00a8ng \u00ae\u00b8ng k\u00d3. \u00a7\u00e8i v\u00edi h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng th\u00abng tin li\u00aan l\u00b9c th\u00d7 v\u00edi ch\u00d8 760 t\u00c7n s\u00e8 tr\u00aan to\u00b5n c\u00c7u th\u00d7 kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00f1 \u00ae\u00b8p \u00f8ng lu l- \u00eeng bay hi\u00d6n t\u00b9i t\u00b9i c\u00b8c v\u00efng nh M\u00fc v\u00b5 Ch\u00a9u \u00a9u (t\u00b9i ch\u00a9u \u00a9u, t\u00e6ng s\u00e8 k\u00aanh hi\u00d6n nay s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng l\u00b5 9000 k\u00aanh). T\u00b9i n\u00edc ta, v\u00edi t\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n lu l\u00eeng bay nh hi\u00d6n nay (274% trong 10 n\u00a8m qua) th\u00d7 s\u00cf ti\u00d3m \u00c8n nguy c\u00ac t\u00bec ngh\u00cfn b\u00a8ng t\u00c7n VHF.

5.M\u00e9t gi\u00b6i ph\u00b8p c\u00f1a ICAO - T\u00e6 ch\u00f8c h\u00b5ng kh\u00abng d\u00a9n d\u00f4ng th\u00d5 gi\u00edi l\u00b5 \u00ae\u00d2 xu\u00cat h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng CNS/ATM, m\u00e9t h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng k\u00d5t h\u00eep c\u00b8c y\u00d5u t\u00e8 C-N-S th\u00b5nh m\u00e9t th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n chung \u00ae\u00d3 h\u00e7 tr\u00ee cho c\u00abng t\u00b8c ATM. Khi \u00ae\u00e3, t\u00cat c\u00b6 c\u00b8c ph\u00acng ti\u00d6n \u00ae\u00d2u c\u00e3 kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng quan s\u00b8t lu\u00e5ng kh\u00abng lu \u00ae\u00d3 t\u00f9 ch\u00f1 \u00ae\u00eec t\u00d7nh tr\u00b9ng c\u00f1a m\u00d7nh, gi\u00b6m g\u00b8nh n\u00c6ng cho KSVKL. H\u00d6 th\u00e8ng d\u00c9n \u00ae\u00eang v\u00b5 gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t d\u00efng c\u00abng ngh\u00d6 v\u00d6 tinh, kh\u00abng ph\u00f4 thu\u00e9c v\u00b5o c\u00cau tr\u00f3c c\u00ac s\u00eb h\u00b9 t\u00c7ng m\u00c6t \u00ae\u00cat , d\u00c7n thay th\u00d5 h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t Radar v\u00b5 d\u00c9n \u00ae\u00eang m\u00c6t \u00ae\u00cat t\u00e8n k\u00d0m. Lo\u00b9i b\u00e1 \u00ae\u00b5m tho\u00b9i t\u00acng t\u00f9 trong ph\u00c7n l\u00edn qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh bay, th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n li\u00aan l\u00b9c ti\u00d2m \u00c8n nhi\u00d4u v\u00b5 t\u00bec ngh\u00cfn.

6. \u00a7\u00a9y l\u00b5 m\u00ab h\u00d7nh ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng c\u00f1a h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng CNS/ATM m\u00edi. T\u00b9i \u00ae\u00a9y, h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng v\u00d6 tinh GPS s\u00cf cung c\u00cap v\u00de tr\u00dd, t\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9, \u00ae\u00e9 cao cho t\u00f5ng ph\u00acng ti\u00d6n lu th\u00abng, \u00ae\u00e5ng th\u00eai cung c\u00cap c\u00b6 th\u00eai gian chu\u00c8n cho t\u00f5ng ph\u00acng ti\u00d6n. B\u00bbng c\u00b8c \u00ae\u00eang li\u00aan k\u00d5t d\u00f7 li\u00d6u, c\u00b8c tr\u00b9m di \u00ae\u00e9ng n\u00b5y s\u00cf ph\u00b8t qu\u00b6ng b\u00b8 th\u00abng tin \u00ae\u00e3 cho t\u00cat c\u00b6 c\u00b8c tr\u00b9m kh\u00b8c v\u00b5 thu th\u00abng tin c\u00b8c tr\u00b9m kh\u00b8c ph\u00b8t v\u00d2 \u00ae\u00d3 h\u00d7nh th\u00b5nh l\u00aan m\u00e9t b\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 lu\u00e5ng kh\u00abng lu cho ch\u00ddnh m\u00d7nh (\u00ae\u00a9y g\u00e4i l\u00b5 d\u00dech v\u00f4 ADS-B ) . Th\u00abng tin \u00aei\u00d2u h\u00b5nh bay v\u00b5 c\u00b8c d\u00dech v\u00f4 kh\u00b8c t\u00f5 KSVKL th\u00abng qua m\u00b9ng m\u00c6t \u00ae\u00cat s\u00cf truy\u00d2n \u00ae\u00d5n tr\u00b9m thu ph\u00b8t VHF \u00ae\u00d3 truy\u00d2n t\u00edi c\u00b8c tr\u00b9m di \u00ae\u00e9ng c\u00f4 th\u00d3. Trong tr\u00eang h\u00eep th\u00eai k\u00fa qu\u00b8 \u00ae\u00e9 c\u00b8c t\u00c7u bay s\u00cf \u00ae\u00eec trang b\u00de \u00ae\u00e5ng th\u00eai c\u00b6 tho\u00b9i VHF v\u00b5 li\u00aan k\u00d5t d\u00f7 li\u00d6u VHF. C\u00dfn c\u00b8c t\u00c7u bay cha \u00ae\u00eec trang b\u00de d\u00dech v\u00f4 ADS-B, tr\u00b9m Radar s\u00cf thu th\u00abng tin v\u00d2 v\u00dd tr\u00dd, bi\u00d5n \u00ae\u00e6i v\u00b5 qua m\u00b9ng m\u00c6t \u00ae\u00cat \u00aea \u00ae\u00d5n \u00ae\u00d3 tr\u00b9m VHF m\u00c6t \u00ae\u00cat ph\u00b8t l\u00aan. L\u00f3c \u00ae\u00e3 c\u00b8c t\u00c7u bay n\u00b5y c\u00f2ng s\u00cf c\u00e3 m\u00e9t b\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 lu\u00e5ng kh\u00abng lu (\u00ae\u00a9y l\u00b5 d\u00dech v\u00f4 TIS- B ). Sau m\u00e9t th\u00eai gian s\u00cf d\u00c7n d\u00c7n lo\u00b9i b\u00e1 c\u00b8c tr\u00b9m Radar . Hi\u00d6n nay d\u00dech v\u00f4 GPS v\u00b5 m\u00b9ng m\u00c6t \u00ae\u00cat \u00ae\u00b7 s\u00bdn s\u00b5ng, \u00aei\u00d2u quan tr\u00e4ng l\u00b5 ph\u00b6i thi\u00d5t l\u00cbp m\u00e9t li\u00aan k\u00d5t d\u00f7 li\u00d6u kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00dea s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng b\u00a8ng t\u00c7n VHF.

7.H\u00d6 th\u00e8ng VDL Mode 4 \u00ae\u00eec l\u00f9a ch\u00e4n \u00eb \u00ae\u00a9y c\u00e3 c\u00b8c \u00ae\u00c6c \u00aei\u00d3m ch\u00ddnh sau: Ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng tr\u00aan b\u00a8ng t\u00c7n th\u00abng tin h\u00b5ng kh\u00abng 108 \u2013 136,975 MHz, ph\u00a9n c\u00b8ch k\u00aanh 25 kHz, \u00a7i\u00d2u ch\u00d5 GPSK, T\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 b\u00ddt 19,2 kb/s, \u00a7\u00e5ng b\u00e9 th\u00eai gian chu\u00c8n UTC, Giao th\u00f8c STDMA

8.\u00a7i\u00d2u ch\u00d5 GFSK l\u00b5 ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p \u00aei\u00d2u t\u00c7n d\u00efng kho\u00b8 d\u00dech t\u00c7n c\u00e3 b\u00e9 l\u00e4c Gaussian. V\u00edi b\u00e9 l\u00e4c n\u00b5y, t\u00ddn hi\u00d6u NRZ tr\u00edc khi \u00aea v\u00b5 \u00aei\u00d2u ch\u00d5 FSK s\u00cf \u00ae\u00eec \u00aea qua b\u00e9 l\u00e4c Gaussian \u00ae\u00d3 h\u00b9n ch\u00d5 \u00ae\u00e9 r\u00e9ng ph\u00e6. K\u00d5t qu\u00b6 ta s\u00cf c\u00e3 m\u00e9t t\u00ddn hi\u00d6u \u00aei\u00d2u t\u00c7n c\u00e3 hi\u00d6u su\u00cat b\u00a8ng th\u00abng cao v\u00b5 t\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 b\u00ddt l\u00aan t\u00edi 19,2 kb/s.

9.S\u00ac \u00ae\u00e5 \u00aei\u00d2u ch\u00d5 GFSK

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