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Properties of Materials

Properties of Materials

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SECTION 4
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
Philip Mason Opsal
Wood Scientist, Wood Science LLC, Tucson, AZ
Grateful acknowledgement is also given to former contributors:
Donald J. Barta
Phelphs Dodge Company
T. W. Dakin
Westinghouse Research Laboratories
Charles A Harper
Technology Seminars, Inc.
Duane E. Lyon
Professor, Mississippi State University
Charles B. Rawlins
Alcoa Conductor Products
James Stubbins
Professor, University of Illinois
John Tanaka
Professor, University of Connecticut
CONTENTS

4.1 CONDUCTOR MATERIALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2 4.1.1 General Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2 4.1.2 Metal Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-3 4.1.3 Conductor Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10 4.1.4 Fusible Metals and Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-25 4.1.5 Miscellaneous Metals and Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-26

4.2 MAGNETIC MATERIALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-27 4.2.1 Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-27 4.2.2 Magnetic Properties and Their Application. . . . . . . .4-35 4.2.3 Types of Magnetism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-36 4.2.4 \u201cSoft\u201d Magnetic Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-37 4.2.5 Materials for Solid Cores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-37 4.2.6 Carbon Steels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-37 4.2.7 Materials for Laminated Cores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-38 4.2.8 Materials for Special Purposes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-40 4.2.9 High-Frequency Materials Applications. . . . . . . . . .4-43 4.2.10 Quench-Hardened Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-45

4.3 INSULATING MATERIALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-46 4.3.1 General Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-46 4.3.2 Insulating Gases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-56

4-1

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
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Source: STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS

4.3.3 Insulating Oils and Liquids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-59 4.3.4 Insulated Conductors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-63 4.3.5 Thermal Conductivity of Electrical

Insulating Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-66

4.4 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-69 4.4.1 Definitions of Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-69 4.4.2 Structural Iron and Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-73 4.4.3 Steel Strand and Rope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-78 4.4.4 Corrosion of Iron and Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-79 4.4.5 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-82 4.4.6 Stone, Brick, Concrete, and Glass Brick. . . . . . . . . .4-86

4.5 WOOD PRODUCTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-87 4.5.1 Sources/Trees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-88 4.5.2 Wood Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-88 4.5.3 Moisture in Wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-90 4.5.4 Thermal Properties of Wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-91 4.5.5 Electrical Properties of Wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-91 4.5.6 Strength of Wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-91 4.5.7 Decay and Preservatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-92 4.5.8 American Lumber Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-99 4.5.9 Wood Poles and Crossarms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-101 4.5.10 Standards for Wood Poles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-101

BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-108
4.1 CONDUCTOR MATERIALS
4.1.1 General Properties
Conducting Materials.A conductor of electricity is any substance or material which will afford

continuous passage to an electric current when subjected to a difference of electric potential. The greater the density of current for a given potential difference, the more efficient the conductor is said to be. Virtually, all substances in solid or liquid state possess the property of electric conduc- tivity in some degree, but certain substances are relatively efficient conductors, while others are almost totally devoid of this property. The metals, for example, are the best conductors, while many other substances, such as metal oxides and salts, minerals, and fibrous materials, are relatively poor conductors, but their conductivity is beneficially affected by the absorption of moisture. Some of the less-efficient conducting materials such as carbon and certain metal alloys, as well as the effi- cient conductors such as copper and aluminum, have very useful applications in the electrical arts.

Certain other substances possess so little conductivity that they are classed as nonconductors, a better term being insulators or dielectrics. In general, all materials which are used commercially for conducting electricity for any purpose are classed as conductors.

Definition of Conductor.Aconductor is a body so constructed from conducting material that it
may be used as a carrier of electric current. In ordinary engineering usage, a conductor is a material
of relatively high conductivity.
Types of Conductors.In general, a conductor consists of a solid wire or a multiplicity of wires

stranded together, made of a conducting material and used either bare or insulated. Only bare con- ductors are considered in this subsection. Usually the conductor is made of copper or aluminum, but for applications requiring higher strength, such as overhead transmission lines, bronze, steel, and various composite constructions are used. For conductors having very low conductivity and used as resistor materials, a group of special alloys is available.

Definition of Circuit.An electric circuit is the path of an electric current, or more specifically, it is
a conducting part or a system of parts through which an electric current is intended to flow. Electric
4-2
SECTION FOUR

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PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

circuits in general possess four fundamental electrical properties, consisting of resistance, inductance, capacitance, and leakage conductance. That portion of a circuit which is represented by its conductors will also possess these four properties, but only two of them are related to the properties of the con- ductor considered by itself. Capacitance and leakage conductance depend in part on the external dimen- sions of the conductors and their distances from one another and from other conducting bodies, and in part on the dielectric properties of the materials employed for insulating purposes. The inductance is a function of the magnetic field established by the current in a conductor, but this field as a whole is divis- ible into two parts, one being wholly external to the conductor and the other being wholly within the conductor; only the latter portion can be regarded as corresponding to the magnetic properties of the conductor material. The resistance is strictly a property of the conductor itself. Both the resistance and the internal inductance of conductors change in effective values when the current changes with great rapidity as in the case of high-frequency alternating currents; this is termed the skin effect.

In certain cases, conductors are subjected to various mechanical stresses. Consequently, their weight, tensile strength, and elastic properties require consideration in all applications of this char- acter. Conductor materials as a class are affected by changes in temperature and by the conditions of mechanical stress to which they are subjected in service. They are also affected by the nature of the mechanical working and the heat treatment which they receive in the course of manufacture or fab- rication into finished products.

4.1.2 Metal Properties
Specific Gravity and Density.Specific gravity is the ratio of mass of any material to that of the

same volume of water at 4\u00b0C. Density is the unit weight of material expressed as pounds per cubic inch, grams per cubic centimeter, etc., at some reference temperature, usually 20\u00b0C. For all prac- tical purposes, the numerical values of specific gravity and density are the same, expressed in g/cm3.

Density and Weight of Copper.Pure copper, rolled, forged, or drawn and then annealed, has a

density of 8.89 g/cm3at 20\u00b0C or 8.90 g/cm3at 0\u00b0C. Samples of high-conductivity copper usually will vary from 8.87 to 8.91 and occasionally from 8.83 to 8.94. Variations in density may be caused by microscopic flaws or seams or the presence of scale or some other defect; the presence of 0.03% oxygen will cause a reduction of about 0.01 in density. Hard-drawn copper has about 0.02% less density than annealed copper, on average, but for practical purposes the difference is negligible.

The international standard of density, 8.89 at 20\u00b0C, corresponds to a weight of 0.32117 lb/in3or 3.0270\ue000 10\u20136lb/(cmil)(ft) or 15.982\ue000 10\u20133lb/(cmil)(mile). Multiplying either of the last two figures by the square of the diameter of the wire in mils will produce the total weight of wire in pounds per foot or per mile, respectively.

Copper Alloys.Density and weight of copper alloys vary with the composition. For hard-drawn
wire covered by ASTM Specification B105, the density of alloys 85 to 20 is 8.89 g/cm3(0.32117 lb/in3)
at 20\u00b0C; alloy 15 is 8.54 (0.30853); alloys 13 and 8.5 is 8.78 (0.31720).
Copper-Clad Steel.Density and weight of copper-clad steel wire is a mean between the density

of copper and the density of steel, which can be calculated readily when the relative volumes or cross sections of copper and steel are known. For practical purposes, a value of 8.15 g/cm3(0.29444 lb/in3) at 20\u00b0C is used.

Aluminum Wire.Density and weight of aluminum wire (commercially hard-drawn) is 2.705 g/cm3

(0.0975 lb/in3) at 20\u00b0C. The density of electrolytically refined aluminum (99.97% Al) and of hard- drawn wire of the same purity is 2.698 at 20\u00b0C. With less pure material there is an appreciable decrease in density on cold working. Annealed metal having a density of 2.702 will have a density of about 2.700 when in the hard-drawn or fully cold-worked conditions (see NBS Circ. 346, pp. 68 and 69).

Aluminum-Clad Wire.Density and weight of aluminum-clad wire is a mean between the density

of aluminum and the density of steel, which can be calculated readily when the relative volumes or cross sections of aluminum and steel are known. For practical purposes, a value of 6.59 g/cm3 (0.23808 lb/in3) at 20\u00b0C is used.

Aluminum Alloys.Density and weight of aluminum alloys vary with type and composition. For
hard-drawn aluminum alloy wire 5005-H19 and 6201-T81, a value of 2.703 g/cm3(0.09765 lb/in3)
at 20\u00b0C is used.
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
4-3

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.\ue000

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

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