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Reduplication in Kashmiri

Reduplication in Kashmiri

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03/18/2014

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Reduplication in Kashmiri
Omkar N Koul

In linguistic studies, the term Reduplication is generally used to mean repetition of any linguistic unit such as a phoneme, morpheme, word, phrase, clause or the utterance as a whole. The process of Reduplication at all these levels is very significant both from the grammatical as well as semantic point of view. The repetition types of these linguistic units may be broadly classified under two categories: repetition at the (a) expression level, and repetition at the (b) contents or semantic level. The reduplication of these linguistic units is a very common feature in Kashmiri. The repetition at both these levels is mainly used for emphasis, generality, intensity, or to show continuation of an act. In certain cases, the repetition of a particular linguistic unit is obligatory. Here an attempt is made to indicate the process of Reduplication at the grammatical level as well as at the semantic level. Complete reduplication of morphemes, words and phrases are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of partial reduplication of words which are best known as Echo-words, Onomatopoeic words, which involve complete reduplication.

1.
Repetition at the Expression Level

At the expression level, the word classes, which are repeated include nouns pronouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs. The repetition of single morphemes or words of all form classes are frequently used in utterances. The examples of these repetition types are given below:

Nouns and pronouns
A number of nouns and pronouns are repeated in utterances very frequently:

1. shur\u2019 shur\u2019 aayi seeryiy vaapas
children children came all back
\u2018All the children returned.\u2019

2.
su chu sombraavaan tyilyimyi tyilyimyi
he is collecting pieces pieces
\u2018 He is collecting by pieces.\u2019
3.

me gav zari zari temyis vuchith
I-erg was pained he-dat see-ptc
\u2018I was pained to see him.\u2019

4.

prath kAAh chu paanas paanas vaataan
everyone is self-fat take care-pr
\u2018Everybody takes care of himself.\u2019

5.

pAAsi pAAsi keryith sombreev\u2019 tem\u2019 vaariyah d\u2019aar
paisa paisa do-ptc collected he-erg much money
\u2018He raised a lot of money penny by penny.\u2019

6.
yus yus tsyiir\u2019 aav su su tulyiv athi thod
who who-nome-rel late came he he \u2013core raise hands up
\u2018Those ones who came late may raise their hands up.\u2019
7.

yemyis yemyis skuul chu gatshun temyis temyis pazyi basyi khasun who who-dat \u2013 rel school is go-inf cor-dat should bus-dat board-inf \u2018Those who have to go to school should board the bus.\u2019

In the example given above, repetition in the sentences 1, 6 and 7 is used for emphasis

and generality.
Adjectives
Reduplication of adjectives is very frequently used in a number of cases for emphasis.

Examples:
8.

jaan jaan tsUUTh\u2019 tseeryiv
good good apples sort out
\u2018Please sort out good apples.\u2019

9.
yi v\u2019eTh v\u2019eTh kuur cha kaalyiji paraan
this fat-f fat-f
girl is college-abl read-pr
\u2018This fat girl studies in a college.\u2019
10.

yimi cha lwakci lwakci kooryi
these are small small girls
\u2018These are small girls.\u2019

11.

pAAtsh pAAtsh Thuul di prath kEEsi
five five eggs give everyone-dat
\u2018Give five eggs each to every one.\u2019

12.

me chu tot tot bati khwash karaan
I-dat is hot hot food like do-pr
\u2018I like hot food.\u2019

13.

yi z\u2019uuTh z\u2019uuTh lADki chu m\u2019aanyi gaamuk
this tall tall boy is my village-gen
\u2018This tall boy belongs to my Village.\u2019

14.

yim tshoT\u2019 leDki chyi yetyiy paraan
these short short (statured) boys are here-loc study-pr
\u2018These short stature boys do study here.\u2019

Repetition in the sentences 8 and 11 is obligatory. The Reduplication in these
sentences indicate plurality.
Verbs

In a number of grammatical constructions, the repetition of verbs in obligatory. Verbs also are reduplicated optionally in certain constructions. Following are examples of sentences where verbs are obligatorily repeated:

15.

me buuz reeDiyo batI kh\u2019avaan kh\u2019avaan
I-dat listened radio food eat-pre eat-pr
\u2018I listened to radio while eating my meals.\u2019

16.

asaan asaan tsol temis osh nyiiryith echav kyin\u2019
laugh-pr laugh-pr fled him tears came-ptc eyes through
\u2018His eyes were filled with tears while laughing.\u2019

17.

temis log dab dooraan dooraan
he-dat had fall run-pr rum-pr
\u2018He fell down while running.\u2019

18.

su aav gari vadaan vadaan
he came home cry-pr cry-pr
\u2018He came home while crying.\u2019

19.

phuTbaal gyindaan gyindaan log temyis khwaras
football play-pr play-pr hurt he-dat foot-dat
\u2018While playing football he hurt his foot.\u2019

20.

caay cavaan cavaan oos su maaji siith\u2019 kathi karaan
tea drint-pr drink-pr was he mother-dat talk do-pr
\u2018While drinking his tea he was talking with his mother.\u2019

21.

tem\u2019 kor panun paan kharaab phyilmi vuch\u2019 vuch\u2019 he-erv did self\u2019s self spoil films having seen seen \u2018He ruined himself by watching movies.\u2019

22.

hatIbazi kyitaabi per\u2019 per\u2019 tyi chuni tas taslee yivaan
hundreds books having read read isn\u2019t he-dat satisfaction come-pr
\u2018He does not feel satisfied even after reading hundreds of books.\u2019

Repetition of verbs in the sentences is obligatory. The sentences will be
ungrammatical if repetitions of the verbs are deleted.
15a
*me buuz reeDiyo bati kh\u2019avaan
16a
*asaan tsol temis osh nyiiryith echav kin\u2019
17a
*temis log dab dooraan
18a
*su aav gari vadaan
19a
*phuTbaal gindaan log temis khwaras
20a
*caay cavaan oos su maaji siith\u2019 kathi karaan
21a
*tem\u2019 kor panun paan kharaab philmi vuch\u2019
22a
*hati bazi kyitaabi prr\u2019 tyi chu ni tas taslyee yivaan

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