Chapter 1 Bonding in Organic Compounds
1.2 Electron ConfigurationA. Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus;this is equal to the number of electrons surrounding the nucleus in a neutralatom. The
is the number of protons plus neutrons in thenucleus.
are atoms with the same number of electrons andprotons but different numbers of neutrons; they have the same atomicnumber but different mass numbers. The
of an element is theweighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes.
B. Atomic Orbitals
The space electrons occupy around an atomic nucleus is described by
. The most common orbitals in organic chemistry are
, spherical orbitals with the atomic nucleus located in the center, anddumbbell shaped
in which the nucleus is between the lobes.
C. Filling Atomic Orbitals
Orbitals exist in
(numbered 1-7). An atomicorbital can be occupied by 0, 1, or 2 electrons. Atomic orbitals are filledaccording to the
beginning with the lowest energy orbitalsand proceeding to higher energy ones. The
of anatom is described by the orbitals occupied in each shell and the number ofelectrons in each orbital.
D. Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
periodic table of elements
is organized according to electronconfiguration. Elements are placed in
that are related to theoutermost shell of electrons and in
that are related to the number ofelectrons in the outer shell. All elements in a group have the same numberof outer shell electrons (the same as the group number) and the sameelectron configuration except for the shell number (for example in Group IV,C is 2s
and Si is 3s
; both outer shells have four electrons).
E. Stable Octets
The elements in Group VIII are especially stable; their outer shellconfiguration is known as a