Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
6Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Organic Chemistry - Morrison and Boyd

Organic Chemistry - Morrison and Boyd

Ratings:

3.0

(1)
|Views: 197|Likes:
Published by funky_stars

More info:

Published by: funky_stars on Nov 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/31/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Bonding in Organic Compounds Chapter 1
1
1
Bonding inOrganic Compounds
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Organic chemistry
is the study of compounds of carbon. This is a separatebranch of chemistry because of the large numbers of organic compounds andtheir occurrences and applications.
1.1 Elements and Compounds – Atoms and MoleculesElements
are the fundamental building units of substances. They arecomposed of tiny particles called
atoms
; atoms are the smallest particles of anelement that retains the properties of that element.
Atoms
are composed of apositively charged
nucleus
that consists of
protons
(charge = +1, mass = 1)and
neutrons
(charge = 0, mass = 1). The nucleus is surrounded by negativelycharged
electrons
that have negligible mass.Elements combine to form
compounds
. A
molecule
is the smallest particleof a compound that retains the properties of the compound; atoms bond to oneanother to form a molecule.
 
Chapter 1 Bonding in Organic Compounds
2
1.2 Electron ConfigurationA. Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
The
atomic number
of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus;this is equal to the number of electrons surrounding the nucleus in a neutralatom. The
mass number
is the number of protons plus neutrons in thenucleus.
Isotopes
are atoms with the same number of electrons andprotons but different numbers of neutrons; they have the same atomicnumber but different mass numbers. The
atomic mass
of an element is theweighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes.
B. Atomic Orbitals
The space electrons occupy around an atomic nucleus is described by
atomic orbitals
. The most common orbitals in organic chemistry are
s-orbitals
, spherical orbitals with the atomic nucleus located in the center, anddumbbell shaped
p-orbitals
in which the nucleus is between the lobes.
C. Filling Atomic Orbitals
Orbitals exist in
energy levels
or
shells
(numbered 1-7). An atomicorbital can be occupied by 0, 1, or 2 electrons. Atomic orbitals are filledaccording to the
Aufbau principle
beginning with the lowest energy orbitalsand proceeding to higher energy ones. The
electron configuration
of anatom is described by the orbitals occupied in each shell and the number ofelectrons in each orbital.
D. Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
The
periodic table of elements
is organized according to electronconfiguration. Elements are placed in
periods
that are related to theoutermost shell of electrons and in
groups
that are related to the number ofelectrons in the outer shell. All elements in a group have the same numberof outer shell electrons (the same as the group number) and the sameelectron configuration except for the shell number (for example in Group IV,C is 2s
2
2p
2
and Si is 3s
2
3p
2
; both outer shells have four electrons).
E. Stable Octets
The elements in Group VIII are especially stable; their outer shellconfiguration is known as a
stable octet
.
 
Bonding in Organic Compounds Chapter 1
3
1.3 Ionic Bonding and the Periodic TableA. Ionic Bonding, Electronegativity,Electron Configuration, and the Periodic TableIonic bonding
involves the complete transfer of electrons between twoatoms of widely different electronegativities; charged
ions
are formed (onepositive from the loss of electrons and one negative from the gain ofelectrons), both of which usually have a stable octet outer shell. The ionicbond results from the attraction between the
positive cation
and
negativeanion.Electronegativity
is defined as the attraction of an atom for its outershell electrons.
Electronegative
elements have a strong attraction forelectrons and form anions in chemical reactions;
electropositive
elementshave relatively weak attractions for electrons and form cations.
B. Electron Dot Representation of Ions
The electrons in the outer shell of an anion are represented by dotssurrounding the element’s symbol. Anions have usually gained sufficientelectrons to complete their outer shells. Cations have usually lost their outershells, the next shell in becomes the new outer shell, a stable octet, and isnot shown.
1.4 Covalent BondingA. Covalent Bonding, Electron Configuration, and the Periodic TableCovalent bonds
involve the sharing of electron pairs between atoms ofsimilar electronegativites; in most cases one or both atoms obtain a stableoctet outer shell of electrons. The most common valences in Groups I-IV ofthe periodic table result from the pairing of all outer shell electrons with outershell electrons of other atoms; a stable octet results in Group IV, but GroupsI-III have incomplete outer shells. The common valences of Groups V-VIIresult from the pairing of outer shell electrons with those of other atoms toform an octet. The predicted valences of Groups I-VII are 1,2,3,4,3,2,1respectively. Electron dot formulas depict the outer shell of atoms inmolecules showing
bonding
and
non-bonding
 
electron pairs
.
B. Covalent Bonding in Organic Compounds

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->