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Chap 9

Chap 9

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Chapter 9
GAS POWER CYCLES
Actual and Ideal Cycles, Carnot cycle, Air-Standard Assumptions
9-1CThe Carnot cycle is not suitable as an ideal cycle for all power producing devices because it cannot
be approximated using the hardware of actual power producing devices.

9-2CIt is less than the thermal efficiency of a Carnot cycle.
9-3CIt represents the net work on both diagrams.
9-4CThe cold air standard assumptions involves the additional assumption that air can be treated as an

ideal gas with constant specific heats at room temperature.
9-5CUnder the air standard assumptions, the combustion process is modeled as a heat addition process,
and the exhaust process as a heat rejection process.
9-6CThe air standard assumptions are: (1) the working fluid is air which behaves as an ideal gas, (2) all

the processes are internally reversible, (3) the combustion process is replaced by the heat addition process, and (4) the exhaust process is replaced by the heat rejection process which returns the working fluid to its original state.

9-7CThe clearance volume is the minimum volume formed in the cylinder whereas the displacement
volume is the volume displaced by the piston as the piston moves between the top dead center and the
bottom dead center.
9-8CIt is the ratio of the maximum to minimum volumes in the cylinder.
9-9CThe MEP is the fictitious pressure which, if acted on the piston during the entire power stroke,
would produce the same amount of net work as that produced during the actual cycle.
9-10CYes .
9-11CAssuming no accumulation of carbon deposits on the piston face, the compression ratio will
remain the same (otherwise it will increase). The mean effective pressure, on the other hand, will
decrease as a car gets older as a result of wear and tear.
9-12CThe SI and CI engines differ from each other in the way combustion is initiated; by a spark in SI
engines, and by compressing the air above the self-ignition temperature of the fuel in CI engines.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
9-1
9-13CStroke is the distance between the TDC and the BDC, bore is the diameter of the cylinder, TDC is
the position of the piston when it forms the smallest volume in the cylinder, and clearance volume is the
minimum volume formed in the cylinder.
9-14 The temperatures of the energy reservoirs of an ideal gas power cycle are given. It is to be
determined if this cycle can have a thermal efficiency greater than 55 percent.
AnalysisThe maximum efficiency any engine using the specified reservoirs can have is
0.678
=
+
+
\u2212
=
\u2212
=
K
273)
(627
K
273)
(17
1
1
Carnot
th,
HL
TT
\u03b7
Therefore, an efficiency of 55 percent is possible.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
9-2
9-15The four processes of an air-standard cycle are described. The cycle is to be shown onP-v andT- s
diagrams, and the net work output and the thermal efficiency are to be determined.
Assumptions1The air-standard assumptions are applicable. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are
negligible.3 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.
Properties The properties of air are given in Table A-17.
Analysis (b) The properties of air at various states are
(
)
(
)
(
)
kJ/kg
828.1
49.10
1310
kPa
2668kPa
100
kPa
2668
kPa
800
K
539.8
K
1800
1310
kJ/kg
1487.2
K
1800
K
539.8
kJ/kg
389.22
088
.
11
1.386
kPa
100
kPa
800
386
.
1
kJ/kg
300.19
K
300
4
34
2
23
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
22
12
1
1
3
4
3
1
2
1
=
\ue000\u2192
\ue000
=
=
=
=
=
=
\ue000\u2192
\ue000
=
=
=
\ue000\u2192
\ue000
=
==
\ue000\u2192
\ue000
=
=
=
=
=
\ue000\u2192
\ue000
=
h
P
P
P
P
P
TT
P
T
P
T
P
P
u
T
Tu
P
P
P
P
P
h
T
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
From energy balances,
kJ/kg
570.1
9
.
527
0
.
1098
kJ/kg
527.9
19
.
300
1
.
828
kJ/kg
1098.0
2
.
389
2
.
1487
out
in
out
net,
1
4
out
2
3
in
=
\u2212
=
\u2212
=
=
\u2212
=
\u2212
=
=
\u2212
=
\u2212
=
q
q
w
h
h
q
u
u
q
(c) Then the thermal efficiency becomes
51.9%
=
=
=
kJ/kg
1098.0kJ/kg
570.1
inout
net,
th
q
w
\u03b7
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
9-3
v
P
1
2
4
3
qin
qout
s
T
1
2
43
qin
qout

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