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Chap 17

# Chap 17

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02/06/2013

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Chapter 17
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
Stagnation Properties
17-1CThe temperature of the air will rise as it approaches the nozzle because of the stagnation process.
17-2CStagnation enthalpy combines the ordinary enthalpy and the kinetic energy of a fluid, and offers
convenience when analyzing high-speed flows. It differs from the ordinary enthalpy by the kinetic energy
term.
17-3CDynamic temperature is the temperature rise of a fluid during a stagnation process.
17-4CNo. Because the velocities encountered in air-conditioning applications are very low, and thus the
static and the stagnation temperatures are practically identical.
17-5 The state of air and its velocity are specified. The stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure of
air are to be determined.

Assumptions1 The stagnation process is isentropic. 2Air is an ideal gas.
Properties The properties of air at room temperature are cp = 1.005 kJ/kg\u22c5K andk = 1.4 (Table A-2a).
Analysis The stagnation temperature of air is determined from

K
355.8
=
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
\u22c5
\u00d7
+
=
+
=
2
2
2
2
0
/s
m
1000kJ/kg
1
K
kJ/kg
005
.
1
2
m/s)
470
(
K
9
.
245
2p
c
V
T
T
Other stagnation properties at the specified state are determined by considering an isentropic process
between the specified state and the stagnation state,
kPa
160.3
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
=
\u2212
\u2212
)
1
4
.
1
/(
4
.
1
)
1
/(
0
0
K
245.9
K
355.8
kPa)
44
(
k
k
T
T
P
P
Discussion Note that the stagnation properties can be significantly different than thermodynamic
properties.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
17-1
17-6 Air at 300 K is flowing in a duct. The temperature that a stationary probe inserted into the duct will
read is to be determined for different air velocities.

Assumptions The stagnation process is isentropic.
Properties The specific heat of air at room temperature is cp = 1.005 kJ/kg\u22c5K (Table A-2a).
Analysis The air which strikes the probe will be brought to a complete stop, and thus it will undergo a

stagnation process. The thermometer will sense the temperature of this stagnated air, which is the
stagnation temperature,T0. It is determined from
p
c
V
T
T
2
2
0
+
=
(a)
K
300.0
=
\ue00b\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue002\ue003\ue001
\u22c5
\u00d7
=
2
s
/
2
m
1000kJ/kg
1
K
kJ/kg
005
.
1
2
2
m/s)
(1
+
K
300
0
T
(b)
K
300.1
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
\u22c5
\u00d7
=
2
2
2
0
s
/
m
1000kJ/kg
1
K
kJ/kg
005
.
1
2
m/s)
(10
+
K
300
T
(c)
K
305.0
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
\u22c5
\u00d7
=
2
2
2
0
s
/
m
1000kJ/kg
1
K
kJ/kg
005
.
1
2
m/s)
(100
+
K
300
T
(d)
K
797.5
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
\u22c5
\u00d7
=
2
2
2
0
s
/
m
1000kJ/kg
1
K
kJ/kg
005
.
1
2
m/s)
(1000
+
K
300
T
Discussion Note that the stagnation temperature is nearly identical to the thermodynamic temperature at
low velocities, but the difference between the two is very significant at high velocities,
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
17-2
AIR
300 K
V
17-7 The states of different substances and their velocities are specified. The stagnation temperature and
stagnation pressures are to be determined.
Assumptions1The stagnation process is isentropic. 2 Helium and nitrogen are ideal gases.
Analysis (a) Helium can be treated as an ideal gas with cp = 5.1926 kJ/kg\u00b7K andk = 1.667 (Table A-2a).
Then the stagnation temperature and pressure of helium are determined from
C
55.5\u00b0
=
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
\u00b0
\u22c5
\u00d7
+
\u00b0
=
+
=
2
2
2
2
0
s
/
m
1000kJ/kg
1
C
kJ/kg
1926
.
5
2
m/s)
(240
C
50
2p
c
V
T
T
MPa
0.261
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
=
\u2212
\u2212
)
1
667
.
1
(
/
667
.
1
)
1
(
/
0
0
K
323.2
K
328.7
MPa)
25
.
0
(
k
k
T
T
P
P
(b) Nitrogen can be treated as an ideal gas with cp = 1.039 kJ/kg\u00b7K andk =1.400. Then the stagnation
temperature and pressure of nitrogen are determined from
C
93.3\u00b0
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
\u00b0
\u22c5
\u00d7
+
\u00b0
=
+
=
2
2
2
2
0
s
/
m
1000kJ/kg
1
C
kJ/kg
039
.
1
2
m/s)
(300
C
50
2p
c
V
T
T
MPa
0.233
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
=
\u2212
\u2212
)
1
4
.
1
/(
4
.
1
)
1
/(
0
0
K
323.2
K
366.5
MPa)
15
.
0
(
k
k
T
T
P
P
(c) Steam can be treated as an ideal gas with cp = 1.865 kJ/kg\u00b7K andk =1.329. Then the stagnation
temperature and pressure of steam are determined from
K
685
C
411.8=
\u00b0
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
\u00b0
\u22c5
\u00d7
+
\u00b0
=
+
=
2
2
2
2
0
s
/
m
1000kJ/kg
1
C
kJ/kg
865
.
1
2
m/s)
(480
C
350
2p
c
V
T
T
MPa
0.147
=
\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue003\ue001
=
\ue00b\ue00b\ue00c\ue00a
\ue002\ue002\ue003\ue001
=
\u2212
\u2212
)
1
329
.
1
/(
329
.
1
)
1
/(
0
0
K
623.2K
685
MPa)
1
.
0
(
k
k
T
T
P
P
Discussion Note that the stagnation properties can be significantly different than thermodynamic
properties.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
17-3

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