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Table Of Contents

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
1.2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE
1.3 RELATIONSHIP OF SUBSTATION TO OVERALL POWER SYSTEM
1.5 TYPES OF SUBSTATIONS
1.5.2 Distribution Substations
1.5.3 Transmission Substations
1.5.4 Switching Substations
CHAPTER 2 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
2.1 INITIAL AND ULTIMATE REQUIREMENTS
2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
2.3.1 General
2.3.3 Altitude
2.3.4 Earthquakes
2.3.5 Other Considerations
2.4 INTERFACING CONSIDERATIONS
2.5 RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
2.6 OPERATING CONSIDERATIONS
2.7 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
2.8 MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
2.9 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3 DOCUMENTS
3.1.1 Possible Documents or Studies Required of the Engineer
3.2 NEED FOR DOCUMENTATION
3.5.3 Types of Drawings
3.6 STUDIES
3.7 REFERENCES
E. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT PLAN
H.FOUNDATION PLAN AND DETAILS
I. STRUCTURE PLAN AND DETAILS
M.CONTROL BUILDING PLANS, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS
P. THREE-LINE DIAGRAMS, AC AND DC SCHEMATICS
Q.MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT YARD EXTERNAL CONNECTION DIAGRAMS
INTRODUCTION
2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
3 DOCUMENTS
4 PHYSICAL LAYOUT
5 MAJOR EQUIPMENT
6 SITE
7 STRUCTURES
8 FOUNDATIONS
9 GROUNDING
10 INSULATED CABLES AND RACEWAYS
11 CORROSION
12 PROTECTIVE RELAYING
13 INSTRUMENTS, TRANSDUCERS, AND METERS
14 SUBSTATION AUTOMATION
15 AC AND DC AUXILIARY SYSTEMS
16 CONTROL HOUSE
17 COMMUNICATIONS
17.4 COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
CHAPTER 4 PHYSICAL LAYOUT
4.2 LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS
4.2.1 Initial Design Parameters
4.2.2 Selection of Switching Scheme
4.2.3 Substation Expansion
4.2.4 Substation Profile
4.2.5 Underground Circuits
4.2.6 Equipment Removal
4.3 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS
4.3.1 Basic Distribution Substation
4.3.2 Transformer Primary Protective Devices
4.3.3 Voltage Regulation
4.3.4 Circuit Breaker/Recloser Bypass Facilities
4.3.5 Surge Arresters
4.3.6 Enclosed Equipment
4.4 TRANSMISSION SUBSTATIONS
4.4.1 Basic Transmission Substation
4.4.2 Circuit Breaker Bypass Facilities
4.4.3 Surge Arresters
4.4.4 Carrier Equipment
4.4.5 Voltage Transformers
4.4.6 Current Transformers
4.4.7 Grounding Switches
4.5 SWITCHING STATIONS
4.5.1 Basic Switching Substation
4.5.2 Surge Arresters
4.6 TYPICAL BUS CONFIGURATIONS
4.6.1 Single Bus
4.6.2 Sectionalized Bus
4.6.3 Main and Transfer Bus
4.6.4 Ring Bus
4.6.5 Breaker-and-a-Half
4.6.6 Double Breaker–Double Bus
4.6.7 Relative Switching Scheme Costs
4.7 PROTECTION OF SUBSTATION INSULATION
4.7.1 General
4.7.2 Surge Protection
4.7.3 Direct Stroke Protection
4.8 SUBSTATION INSULATORS
4.8.1 Outdoor Apparatus Insulators
4.8.2 Suspension Insulators
Minimum Quantity of Suspension Insulators*
4.9 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES
4.10 BARE CONDUCTORS
4.10.1 Conductor Materials
4.10.2 Rigid Conductors
4.10.3 Flexible Conductors
4.10.4 Conductor Ampacity
4.10.5 Bus Connections
4.11 RIGID BUS DESIGN
4.11.1 General Considerations
4.11.2 Procedure for Rigid Bus Design
4.11.3 Bus Design Example
4.12 STRAIN BUS DESIGN
4.12.1 General Considerations
4.12.2 Procedure for Strain Bus Design
4.13 APPLICATION OF MOBILE TRANSFORMERS AND SUBSTATIONS
4.13.1 Size and Maneuverability of the Equipment
4.13.2 Installation Location and Provisions
4.13.3 Electrical Clearances
4.13.4 Primary and Secondary Connections
4.13.5 Grounding
4.13.6 Auxiliary System Requirements
4.13.7 Safety
4.14 REFERENCES
4.15 LEGEND FOR EQUATIONS
CHAPTER 5 MAJOR EQUIPMENT
5.2 POWER TRANSFORMERS
5.2.1 General
5.2.3 Ratings
5.2.5 Impedance
5.2.6 Phase Relation
5.2.7 Parallel Operation of Transformers
5.2.8 Dielectric Requirements
5.2.9 Short Circuit Requirements
5.2.10 Cooling Equipment
5.2.11 Oil and Oil Preservation Equipment
5.2.12 Audible Sound
5.2.14 Accessories
5.2.15 Electrical Tests and Measurements
5.2.16 Shipment
5.2.17 Warranty
5.2.18 Core and Coils
5.2.19 Specifications
5.2.20 References
5.3 POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERS
5.3.2 Types of Circuit Breakers
5.3.3 Ratings
5.3.4 Operating Mechanisms
5.3.6 Control and Auxiliary Power Requirements
5.3.7 Purchase Evaluation
5.3.8 Shipment and Installation
5.3.9 References
5.4 METAL-CLAD SWITCHGEAR
5.4.1 General
5.4.3 Ratings
5.4.4 Purchase Considerations
5.4.5 References
5.5 SUBSTATION VOLTAGE REGULATORS
5.5.1 General
5.5.3 Ratings
5.5.4 Regulator Controls
5.5.5 Lightning Protection
5.5.6 References
5.6 SHUNT CAPACITOR EQUIPMENT
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 System Considerations
5.6.4 Bank Configuration
5.6.5 Ratings
5.6.6 Switching
5.6.7 Protection
5.6.8 Grounding and Short-Circuiting of Capacitor Banks
5.6.9 Mounting
5.6.10 Factory Tests
5.6.11 Inspection and Maintenance
5.6.12 Typical Technical Specification
5.6.13 References
5.7.2 Types of Air Switches
5.7.3 Various Constructions of Outdoor Air Switches
5.7.4 Usual Service Conditions
5.7.6 Other Requirements
5.7.7 Mounting Considerations
5.7.8 References
5.8SURGE ARRESTERS
5.8.2 Classification of Arresters
5.8.3 Ratings (Standard Definitions)
5.8.4 System Voltage
5.8.5 Grounded vs. Ungrounded Systems
5.8.6 Application Guide for Silicon-Carbide Valve Arresters
5.8.8 Location
5.8.9 Protection at Line Entrances
5.8.10 References
5.9 AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT RECLOSERS
5.9.1 General
5.9.2 Recloser Classifying Features
5.9.3 Recloser Ratings
5.9.4 Construction
5.9.5 Recloser Operation
5.9.6 Maintenance and Inspection
5.9.7 Mounting
5.9.8 References
5.10 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
5.10.1 General
5.10.2 Service Conditions
5.10.3 Accuracy
5.10.4 Secondary Burdens
5.10.5 Construction
5.10.6 Current Transformers
5.10.7 Voltage Transformers
5.10.8 Combination Units
5.11.1 General
5.11.2 Coupling Capacitors
5.11.3 Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformers
5.11.4 Service Conditions
5.11.5 Ratings
5.11.7 References
5.12 MOBILE UNITS
5.12.1 Feasibility
5.12.2 Mobile Transformers
5.12.3 Mobile Substations
5.12.4 Phase Rotation Indicators
5.12.5 Other Considerations
5.12.6 Accessories Included with the Mobile Unit
6.2 TYPES OF GRADED YARDS
6.2.1 Flat Yards
6.2.2 Sloped Yards
6.2.3 Stepped Yards (Two or More Levels)
6.3 PRELIMINARY REQUIREMENTS
6.4 DRAINAGE CONSIDERATIONS
6.4.1 Stormwater Management
6.4.2 Surface Drainage System
6.4.3 Closed Drainage System
6.4.4 Planning
6.5 EARTHWORK CONSIDERATIONS AND DESIGN
6.5.2 Topsoil
6.5.3 Cut and Fill
6.5.4 Compaction
6.5.5 Cleanup
6.6 ROADS AND OTHER ACCESS
6.6.1 General Access Roads
6.6.3 Curvature
6.6.5 Railroad Spur
6.6.6 Roadways in the Substation Yard
6.7 EROSION PROTECTION
6.7.1 General
6.7.2 Legal Requirements
6.8 YARD SURFACING MATERIAL
6.9 SECURITY FENCE
6.10 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7 STRUCTURES
7.1 MATERIALS
7.1.2 Aluminum
7.1.3 Concrete
7.2 FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE TYPES
7.2.1 Line Support Structures
7.2.2 Equipment Support Structures
7.2.3 Distribution Substation Structure
7.3 STRUCTURE MEMBER TYPES
7.3.1 Lattice
7.3.2 Solid Profile
7.3.3 Semi-Solid Profile
7.3.4 Summary
7.4.1 Design Loads
7.4.2 Line Support Structures
7.4.3 Deflection Consideration
7.4.4 Lightning Masts
7.4.5 Equipment Support Structures
7.4.6 Base Condition
7.4.7 Seismic Loads
7.4.8 Wind Loads
7.4.9 Construction Loading
7.4.10 Loading Combination for Design
7.4.11 Typical Design Approach
7.5 FASTENERS
7.5.1 ASTM A394
7.5.2 ASTM A307
7.5.3 ASTM A325
7.7.1 Galvanizing
7.7.2 Painting
7.7.3 Wood Preservatives
7.8 COMPUTER PROGRAMS
7.8.1 Model Geometry
7.8.2 Load Input
7.8.3 Computer Output
7.9 REFERENCES
APPENDIX D RISA-3D INPUT AND OUTPUT FOR A SIMPLE “T” STRUCTURE
8.2 SOIL INFORMATION
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Soil Classification
8.2.3 Bearing Values
8.2.4 Groundwater Level
8.2.5 Differential Settlement
8.2.6 Chemical Tests
8.2.7 Seismic Evaluation
8.3 FOUNDATION TYPES
8.3.1 Drilled Shafts (Piers)
8.3.2 Drilled Shaft Design
8.3.3 Drilled Shaft Design (Line Support Structure)
8.3.4 Compression and Uplift Capacity (Drilled Shafts)
8.3.5 Spread Footings
8.5 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 9 GROUNDING
9.2.1 DC Offset
9.2.2 Earth Current
9.2.3 Ground Fault Current
9.2.4 Ground Potential Rise (GPR)
9.2.5 Mesh Voltage
9.2.6 Soil Resistivity
9.2.7 Step Voltage
9.2.8 Touch Voltage
9.2.9 Transferred Voltage
9.3 SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS
9.3.1 Analyzing Soil Resistivity Measurements
9.3.2 Uniform Soil Assumption
9.4 AREA OF THE GROUND GRID
9.5 GROUND FAULT CURRENTS
9.5.1 Symmetrical Grid Current
9.5.2 Determine the Split Factor, Sf
9.5.3 The Decrement Factor, Df
9.5.4 Maximum Grid Current
9.5.5 Asymmetrical Fault
9.6 GROUND CONDUCTOR
9.6.1 Conductor Material
9.6.2 Ground Conductor Sizing
9.6.3 Sizing Equipment Ground Conductor
9.6.4 Sizing Ground Grid Conductors
9.6.5 Additional Conductor Sizing Factors
9.6.6 Connections from Equipment and Structures to Ground Grid
9.7 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
9.7.1 Tolerable Limits of Body Current
9.7.2 Typical Shock Situations
9.8 TOLERABLE TOUCH AND STEP VOLTAGES
9.9 PROTECTIVE SURFACE MATERIAL AND REDUCTION FACTOR CS
9.9.1 Reduction Factor Cs
9.10 DESIGN OF A SUBSTATION GROUNDING SYSTEM
9.10.1 General Concepts
9.10.2 Design Procedures
9.10.3 Preliminary Design
9.10.4 Calculate Design Mesh Voltage
9.10.5 Step Voltage (Es)
9.10.6 Ground Potential Rise (GPR)
9.10.7 Design Modifications
9.10.8 Application of Equations for Em and Es
9.10.9 Use of Computer Analysis in Grid Design
9.10.10 Special Danger Points
9.10.11 Investigation of Transferred Voltage
9.10.12 Effect of Sustained Ground Currents
9.11 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 10 INSULATED CABLES AND RACEWAYS
10.2 600-VOLT CABLE
10.2.1 Circuit Requirements
10.2.2 Conductors
10.2.3 Conductor Configurations
10.2.4 Conductor Insulation and Jackets
10.2.5 Cable Sizing
10.2.6 Segregation of Control Cables
10.2.7 Installation Considerations
10.3 POWER CABLE OVER 600 VOLTS
10.3.1 Medium-Voltage Shielded Power Cable (2 kV up to 35 kV)
10.3.2 Conductors
10.3.3 Conductor Shield
10.3.4 Insulation
10.3.5 Insulation Shield
10.3.6 Jackets
10.3.7 Cable Voltage Rating
10.3.8 Conductor Sizing
10.3.9 Terminations and Splices
10.3.10 Cable Segregation
10.3.11 Installation Considerations
10.3.12 High-Voltage Power Cable (69 kV up to 230 kV)
10.4 SPECIALIZED CABLE
10.5 RACEWAYS
10.5.1 Function
10.5.2 Economics
10.6 UNDERGROUND RACEWAYS
10.6.1 Direct-Buried Cable
10.6.2 Direct-Buried Conduit
10.6.3 Concrete Encased Conduit (Duct Bank)
10.6.4 Cable Trenches
10.6.5 Manholes
10.6.6 Handholes
10.7 RACEWAY COMBINATION
10.8 SUMMARY—UNDERGROUND RACEWAYS
10.9 OVERHEAD RACEWAYS
10.9.1 Cable Trays
10.9.2 Cable Duct
10.9.3 Plastic Conduit
10.9.4 Metal Conduit
10.9.5 Above-Grade Cable Trench
10.10 SUMMARY—OVERHEAD RACEWAYS
10.11 RACEWAY MATERIALS
10.11.1 Plastic
10.11.2 Fiber
10.12 RACEWAY SIZING
10.13 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 11 CORROSION
11.1.1 Characteristics of Corrosion
11.1.2 Dissimilar Metals
11.1.3 Dissimilar Environments
11.2 PRELIMINARY PREVENTIVE MEASURES
11.2.1 Surveys
11.2.2 Selection of Materials
11.3 TESTING AND INSTALLATION
11.3.1 Earth Resistivity Measurements
11.3.2 Soil Samples
11.3.3 Anode Locations
11.3.4 Underground Connections
11.3.5 Estimating Corrosion Conditions from DC Potential Measurements
11.4 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 12 PROTECTIVE RELAYING
12.1.1 Purpose of Protective Relays
12.1.2 Design Objectives
12.1.3 Indications of Defective Equipment or Abnormal Conditions
12.2 FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
12.2.1 Phasors
12.2.3 Faults
12.2.4 Symmetrical Components
12.2.5 Relay Input Sources
12.3 BASIC RELAY TYPES
12.3.1 General
12.3.2 Relay Selection
12.3.3 Overcurrent Relay
12.3.4 Distance Relay
12.3.5 Differential Relay
12.3.6 Overvoltage Relay
12.3.7 Undervoltage Relay
12.3.8 Power Relay
12.3.9 Directional Overcurrent Relay
12.3.10 Frequency Relay
12.3.11 Thermal Relay
12.3.12 Pressure Relay
12.3.13 Auxiliary Relay
12.4 RELAY SCHEMES
12.4.1 General
12.4.2 Transmission Line Protection
12.4.3 Distribution Feeder
12.4.4 Major Equipment
12.4.5 Reclosing
12.4.6 Coordination
12.5 REFERENCES
APPENDIX F STANDARD DEVICE FUNCTION NUMBERS
APPENDIX G SUGGESTED SUFFIX LETTERS
CHAPTER 13 INSTRUMENTS, TRANSDUCERS, AND METERS
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.2 INSTRUMENTS AND TRANSDUCERS
13.2.1 Definitions
13.2.2 Types of Instruments and Transducers
13.2.3 Classification of Instruments
13.2.4 Components of Instruments and Transducers
13.2.5 Analog Instrument Scales
13.2.6 Operating Procedures
13.3.1 Definition
13.3.2 Types of Electric Meters
13.3.3 Demand Meter
13.3.4 Combination Watt-Hour and Demand Meters
13.3.5 Types of Meter Indicating and Recording Devices
13.3.6 Connection of Watt-Hour and VAR-Hour Meters
13.4 MULTI-FUNCTION METERS
13.4.1 Definition
13.4.2 Input Quantities
13.4.3 Measured and Calculated Values
13.4.4 Communications
13.5 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 14 SUBSTATION AUTOMATION
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 OPEN VS. PROPRIETARY SYSTEMS
14.3 SUBSTATION AUTOMATION ARCHITECTURE
14.4 DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL ELEMENTS
14.4.1 Substation Host Processor
14.4.2 Intelligent Electronic Devices
14.4.3 Programmable Logic Controllers
14.4.4 Data Concentrator
14.4.5 Substation Local Area Network
14.4.6 Communication Protocols
14.5 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 15 AC AND DC AUXILIARY SYSTEMS
15.1 AC AUXILIARY SYSTEM
15.1.1 Typical Loads Supplied
15.1.2 Design Requirements
15.1.3 Equipment
15.1.4 Summary
15.2 DC AUXILIARY SYSTEM
15.2.1 Typical Loads Supplied
15.2.2 Design Requirements
15.2.3 Types of Cells
15.2.4 Typical Loads and Duty Cycle
15.2.5 Equipment
15.3 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 16 CONTROL HOUSES
16.1 INTRODUCTION
16.2 CONTROL HOUSE CONSTRUCTION
16.2.1 Foundation
16.2.3 Superstructure
16.3 CONTROL HOUSE LAYOUT
16.3.1 Control and Relay Panels
16.3.2 DC Equipment
16.3.3 AC Equipment
16.3.4 Cableways
16.3.5 Cable Entrance
16.3.6 Lighting
16.3.7 Control House HVAC Systems
16.3.8 Control House Plumbing
16.3.9 Communications
16.4 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 17 COMMUNICATIONS
17.1 INTRODUCTION
17.2 APPLICATIONS
17.2.1 Relaying
17.2.3 Telemetering
17.3.1 Power Line Carrier
17.3.2 Audio Tone
17.3.3 Carrier or Audio Tone on Shield Wire
17.3.4 Microwave
17.3.5 Optical Fiber
17.3.6 Wire Lines
17.3.7 Satellite Communications
17.4 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 18 INSPECTION
18.2.1 Records
18.2.2 Safety
18.5 REFERENCES
19.1.1 Records
19.1.2 Safety
19.2 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS
19.2.1 Acceptance Tests
19.2.2 Periodic Tests
19.2.3 Tests After Failure
19.3 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS
19.3.1 Insulation Resistance Test
19.3.2 Power Factor Test
19.3.3 DC High Potential Test
19.3.4 Dielectric Absorption Test
19.3.5 AC Over-Potential Test
19.3.6 Contact Resistance Test
19.3.7 Winding Resistance Test
19.3.8 Insulating Oil Tests
19.3.9 Combustible Gas Analysis
19.3.10 SF6 Gas Analyses
19.3.11 Timing Test
19.3.12 Motion Analyzer Test
19.3.13 Series Overcurrent Test
19.3.14 Turns Ratio Test
19.3.15 Polarity Test
19.3.16 Protective Relay System Tests
19.3.17 Meter Calibration Tests
19.3.18 Capacitance Test
19.3.19 Pressure Test
19.3.20 Ground Grid Resistance Measurement
19.4 REFERENCES
20.1.1 Records
20.1.2 Safety
20.2 PERIODIC MAINTENANCE
20.2.1 Specific Requirements
20.2.2 Painting
20.3 UNSCHEDULED MAINTENANCE
20.4 RELIABILITY-CENTERED MAINTENANCE
20.4.1 Methods
20.4.2 Application
20.4.3 Conclusion
20.5 REFERENCES
CHAPTER 21 UPRATING AND EXPANDING EXISTING SUBSTATIONS
21.1 APPLICABILITY
21.2 FEASIBILITY
21.3 SUBSTATION UPRATING
21.3.1 Major Equipment Uprating
21.4 SUBSTATION EXPANSION
21.4.1 General
21.4.2 Site Work
21.4.3 Grounding
21.4.4 Raceway System
21.4.5 Control House
21.4.6 Equipment
21.5 PLANNING FOR UPRATING OR EXPANSION
21.6 COMPARISONS—NEW VS. UPRATING OR EXPANSION
21.7 SUBSTATION UPGRADING
21.8 REFERENCES
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Bulletin Rea 651

Bulletin Rea 651

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