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Table Of Contents

Tensiometers
I.DESCRIPTION OF A TENSIOMETER
II.TYPES OF TENSIOMETERS
III.TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON TENSIOMETERS
IV.APPLICATIONS OF TENSIOMETERS
V.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF L.A. RICHARDS
Soil-Water Terminology and Applications
I.WATER CONTENT
II.WATER POTENTIAL
III.HEADS IN A COLUMN OF SOIL
IV.MOVEMENT OF WATER BETWEEN TENSIOMETERS
V.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF WILLIAM L. POWERS
Static Water in Soil
I.SURFACE TENSION
II.EXAMPLES OF SURFACE TENSION
III.RISE AND FALL OF WATER IN SOIL PORES
IV.APPENDIX: HISTORY OF SURFACE TENSION
V.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF MARQUIS DE LAPLACE
Water Movement in Saturated Soil
I.DARCY’S LAW
II. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
III. LAPLACE’S EQUATION
IV. ELLIPSE EQUATION
V.LINEAR FLOW LAWS
VI.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF APOLLONIUS OF PERGA
VII.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF HENRY DARCY
I.FIELD CAPACITY
II.WILTING POINT
III. AVAILABLE WATER
IV.NON-LIMITING WATER RANGE
V.BIOGRAPHIES OF BRIGGS AND SHANTZ
Penetrometer Measurements
I.DEFINITION, TYPES OF PENETROMETERS, AND USES
II.TYPES OF TESTS
III.WHAT PENETROMETER MEASUREMENTS DEPEND UPON
IV. CONE PENETROMETER
V.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF CHAMP TANNER
Measurement of Oxygen Diffusion Rate
I.THE OXYGEN DIFFUSION RATE METHOD
III.MODEL AND PRINCIPLES OF THE ODR METHOD
V.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF MICHAEL FARADAY
Infiltration
I. DEFINITION OF INFILTRATION
II.FOUR MODELS OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL INFILTRATION
III. TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL INFILTRATION
IV. REDISTRIBUTION
V.TENSION INFILTROMETER OR DISC PERMEAMETER
VI. MINIDISK INFILTROMETER
VIII.MEASUREMENT OF REPELLENCY WITH THE TENSION INFILTROMETER
IX.MEASUREMENT OF MOBILITY WITH THE TENSION INFILTROMETER
XI.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF JOHN PHILIP
Pore Volume
I. DEFINITIONS
II.ILLUSTRATION OF BREAKTHROUGH CURVES AND PORE VOLUMES
III.MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF PORE VOLUME
IV.CALCULATION OF A PORE VOLUME
V.PORE VOLUMES BASED ON LENGTH UNITS
VI.MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT
VIII.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF DONALD NIELSEN
I.DEFINITIONS
IV.COAXIAL CABLE AND WAVEGUIDES
V.MEASUREMENT OF SOIL WATER CONTENT USING TDR
VII.EXAMPLE OF USING TDR TO DETERMINE ROOT WATER UPTAKE
VIII.HYDROSENSE™
IX.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF HEINRICH HERTZ
X.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF SERGEI SCHELKUNOFF
I.ROOT ANATOMY
II. POISEUILLE’S LAW
III.ASSUMPTIONS OF POISEUILLE’S LAW
IV.CALCULATIONS OF FLOW BASED ON POISEUILLE’S LAW
V.AGRONOMIC APPLICATIONS OF POISEUILLE’S LAW
VI.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF J.L.M. POISEUILLE
VII.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF OSBORNE REYNOLDS
I.DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUATION
II.ASSUMPTIONS
III.VALUES FOR THE RATE OF WATER UPTAKE
IV.EXAMPLES
V.EFFECT OF WET AND DRY SOIL
VI.EFFECT OF ROOT RADIUS
VIII.EFFECT OF ROOT DISTRIBUTION ON WILTING
IX.FINAL COMMENT
X.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF WILFORD GARDNER
II. THERMOELECTRIC EFFECTS
III.JOULE HEATING
IV. THERMOELECTRIC POWER
V.RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VAPOR PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE
VIII.TYPES OF THERMOCOUPLE PSYCHROMETERS
IX.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF J.C.A. PELTIER
X.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE
II.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PRESSURE CHAMBER
III.HYDRAULIC PRESS
IV.PUMP-UP PRESSURE CHAMBER
V.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF PER SCHOLANDER
VI.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF JOHN BOYER
I.STEM ANATOMY
II.MEASUREMENT OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE WATER POTENTIAL
III.OSMOTIC POTENTIAL (Y
IV.THEORY OF SCHOLANDER PRESSURE-VOLUME CURVES
V.HOW TO ANALYZE A PRESSURE-VOLUME CURVE
VI.TURGOR POTENTIAL (Y
VIII. OSMOMETER
IX.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF WILHELM PFEFFER
X.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF JACOBUS VAN’T HOFF
XI.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF RUDOLF CLAUSIUS
The Ascent of Water in Plants
I.THE PROBLEM
III. COHESION THEORY
IV.LIMITATIONS OF THE COHESION THEORY
V.ALTERNATIVE THEORY TO THE COHESION THEORY
VI.NEW TECHNIQUES TO CONFIRM THE COHESION THEORY
VII.CONTROVERY ABOUT THE COHESION THEORY
VIII.POTENTIALS IN THE SOIL-PLANT-ATMOSPHERE CONTINUUM
IX.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF HENRY DIXON
X.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF JOHN JOLY
I.THE ANALOGY
II.MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE WITH THE WHEATSTONE BRIDGE
III.LAW OF RESISTANCE
IV.UNITS OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
VI.VAN DEN HONERT’S EQUATION
VII.PROOF OF VAN DEN HONERT’S EQUATION
VIII.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF GEORG OHM
IX.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF CHARLES WHEATSTONE
X.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHIES OF MEMBERS OF THE SIEMENS FAMILY
APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHIES OF MEMBERS OF THE SIEMENS FAMILY 353
Leaf Anatomy and Leaf Elasticity
I.LEAF ANATOMY
II.INTERNAL WATER RELATIONS
V.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF ROBERT HOOKE
VI.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF THOMAS YOUNG
I.DEFINITION OF STOMATA AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION
II.STOMATAL ANATOMY OF DICOTS AND MONOCOTS
III. STOMATAL DENSITY
IV.DIFFUSION OF GASES THROUGH STOMATAL PORES
V.GUARD CELLS
VI.MECHANISM OF STOMATAL OPENING
VII. BOUNDARY LAYER
VIII.LEAF RESISTANCES
X.THEORY OF MASS-FLOW AND DIFFUSION POROMETERS
XI.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF ADOLF FICK
I.SOLAR RADIATION
II.TERRESTRIAL RADIATION
III.DEFINITION OF A BLACK BODY
IV.EXAMPLE OF A BLACK BODY
V.TEMPERATURE OF A BLACK BODY
VI.GRAY BODY
VII.SPECTRUM OF A BLACK BODY
VIII.SUN’S TEMPERATURE
IX.EARTH’S TEMPERATURE
X.COMPARISON OF SOLAR AND TERRESTRIAL RADIATION
XI.HEAT BUDGET
XII. RADIATION BALANCE
XIII.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF GUSTAV KIRCHHOFF
XIV.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF JOSEF STEFAN
XV.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF LUDWIG BOLTZMANN
XVI.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF WILHELM WIEN
I. INFRARED THERMOMETERS
II.DEFINITIONS
III.PRINCIPLES OF INFRARED THERMOMETRY
IV.USE OF A PORTABLE INFRARED THERMOMETER
V.CALIBRATION OF INFRARED THERMOMETERS
VI.ADVANTAGES OF INFRARED THERMOMETERS
VII.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF RAY JACKSON
I. STRESS-DEGREE-DAY PROCEDURE
III. CROP-WATER-STRESS INDEX
IV.HOW TO CALCULATE THE CROP-WATER-STRESS INDEX
VII.APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHY OF SHERWOOD IDSO
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Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations

Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations

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Published by: Michelle Morales Olmedo on Nov 06, 2011
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