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Nikku Social Work Education Nepal

Nikku Social Work Education Nepal

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Published by Jolovan Wham

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Published by: Jolovan Wham on Nov 06, 2011
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Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Social Work Education
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713447070
Social Work Education in Nepal: Major Opportunities and AbundantChallenges
Bala Raju NikkuOnline publication date: 05 November 2010
To cite this Article
Nikku, Bala Raju(2010) 'Social Work Education in Nepal: Major Opportunities and AbundantChallenges', Social Work Education, 29: 8, 818 — 830
To link to this Article: DOI:
10.1080/02615479.2010.516984
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Full terms and conditions of use:http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdfThis article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial orsystematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply ordistribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contentswill be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug dosesshould be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss,actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directlyor indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
 
Social Work Education in Nepal:Major Opportunities andAbundant Challenges
Bala Raju Nikku
This paper discusses the evolution of social work education in Nepal. The history of social work education and training in Nepal is rather nascent. Imparting social work educationand training is a challenging task in Nepal due to the ongoing political instability, multi-cultural issues and lack of social work educators, and the lack of a professional association,in addition to the lack of government recognition for the social work profession in thecountry. The paper is divided into four sections. After a general introduction, Section 2discusses the evolution of social work education in the context of the development of higher education in Nepal. The paper describes Nepal and its changing social context, thechallenges for social work and how social work education is meeting these challenges. Nepal’s efforts to realize indigenous and international practices of social work educationare discussed in the third section. The paper indentifies these gaps and a Nepalese model of social work is presented in Section 4. The paper is written on the basis of the author’s personal narrative of many yearswork in Nepal in order to start a discussion onindigenous and international social work perspectives along with challenges for social work education in the context of the current global climate of social, political and economic changes in order to draw lessons for Nepal and South Asia.Keywords: Social Work Education; Nepal; South Asia; Indigenous Social Work;International Social Work 
1. Introduction
Sincethebeginningofthetwentiethcentury,socialworkeducationhasgrownworldwide,includingthroughouttheSouthAsiaRegion.Theimperativesoftheinternationalizationof social work education and indigenous practice methods and research are both
ISSN 0261-5479 print/1470-1227 online
q
2010 Taylor & FrancisDOI: 10.1080/02615479.2010.516984
Correspondence to: Bala Raju Nikku, Head, Department of Social Work, Kadambari Memorial College of Science andManagement, Purbanchal University Affiliate, Kathmandu, Nepal. Tel.: 00977-9851004578. Email: nikku21@yahoo.com,www.nepalschoolofsocialwork.org
Social Work EducationVol. 29, No. 8, December 2010, pp. 818–830 
 D o w nl o ad ed  A t : 12 :41 16  N o v e mb e r 2010
 
challengingandrewarding.Thecommunicationrevolutionnotonlymadetheworldintoa global village, it has also resulted in a digital divide. While addressing these global andlocal challenges, social work today is rightly striving to become an internationalprofession.In one form or another, social work is taught and practiced in most of the regionsand countries of the world, but one needs to realize that
the universality of social work does not mean that the pattern of social worksorganisation,roles,andfieldsofservice,modesofeducationalpreparationordegreeof social recognition are uniform throughout the world
. . .
Yet there are impressivecommonalities in the profession’s roles and functions. (Hokenstad
et al.
, 1992, p. 181)
Gray 
et al.
(2008) have claimed that twenty-first century social work represents anumber of parallel and related discourses that co-exist, which many social work educators are unaware of (see Table 1). Midgley (1990, 1997) described internationalsocial work as a ‘two way street’. Professor Midgley might have meant that social work educators who are involved in international issues (like human trafficking) havebenefited by learning from their international partners and vice versa. Asamoah
et al.
(1997) argued that despite the increasing global changes, the social work curriculum inmany parts of the world remains narrowly focused on domestic perspectives. Thus afirst step toward preparing students for practice in the new millennium is theinternationalization of the social work curriculum (cited from Johnson, 2004, p. 7).Xu (2006) has argued that ‘while social work educators and researchers havethoroughly discussed and defined international social work, and have documented theimportance of internationalizing social work, they have focused very little on theinternational social work practice involved in real world settings(p. 680).International social work is defined as international professional practice and thecapacity for international action by the social work profession and its members (seeCox and Pawar, 2006). In addition, there are debates over the international and localstandards of social work education and practice. Sungkawan (2009) argues that
in order to set standards of social work education and practice, one needs torecognize the concept of cross-cultural social work or international social work. Theconcept allows us to view social work education and practice could be transferableamong countries with different cultures. (p. 118)
Lyons (1999) analyses the development of international social work, both as offering animportant perspective on practice at the local level and as a distinct form of cross-borderand supra-national activity.The literature on ‘indigenization’ in social work, which is essentially about importingsocial work from the ‘West to the rest’ of the world, supports Midgley’s notion of ‘professional imperialism’. Some authors have nevertheless argued about whether socialwork practice can be truly international in nature (Drucker, 2003; Webb, 2003).‘Indigenizationand ‘indigenous social work’ are not the same but two separatediscourses. The politics of international social work play out as ‘Western’ perspectivescontinue to dominate and ‘local’ cultures continue to resist the onslaught, as is evidentin the statement by Gray and others (2008) that ‘Localization is the antithesis of 
Social Work Education
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