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Research Fundamentals

Research Fundamentals

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Published by: api-3830923 on Oct 18, 2008
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Chapter 2- Research Process
Chapter 1 : Research Fundamentals
Chapter 2: Research Process
Prepared by Group 1
Chapter nos.
Page nos.
Research fundamentals
Definition of research
Basics vs applied research
Market and marketing research
Information systems, decision support
systems, and marketing research
Advantages of MR
Limitations of the MR
Application of marketing research

01 03 03 03

05 06 07

Research process
Steps in the process of research
Problem discovery
Problem definition
Research objectives
Developing hypothesis for a particular
Research design
Research method
Data collection \u2013 sources and tools
Sampling methods
Use of scales in research
Data processing
Data analysis
Research report

19 19 19


21 21 22


24 24 25

Chapter 2- Research Process

Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner\u2019s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory define research as a \u201csystematized effort to gain new knowledge.\u201d Some people consider research as a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.

Research is an academic activity and such a term should be used in atechn ical
sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining

problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D.Slesinger and M.Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences define research as \u201cthe manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, corrector verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practise of art.\u201d Research is thus an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The

systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is

also research. As such the term \u2018research\u2019 refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusion either in the form of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generalization for some theoretical formulation.

The purpose of research is to discover answers through the application of
scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is

hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into number of broad grouping:

\u2022To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies
with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies.
Chapter 2- Research Process
\u2022To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation
or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research
\u2022To determine thefrequenc y with which something occurs or with which it is
associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as
diagnostic research studies).
To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables (such studies are known as
hypothesis-testing research studies).
Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (or basic or
pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for animmediate
problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization, whereas

fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. \u201cGathering knowledge for knowledge\u2019s sake is termed as pure or \u2018basic\u2019 research\u201d. Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental. Similarly, research studies, concerning human behavior carried on with a view to make generalizations about human behavior, are also examples of fundamental research, but research aimed at certain conclusions (say, a solution) facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research. Research to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular solution or the copy research (research to find out whether certain communications will be read and understood) or the marketing research or evaluation research are examples of applied research. Thus, the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem, whereas basic research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of application and thus, adds to the already existing organized body of scientific knowledge.


An information system (IS) is a continuing and interacting structure of people, equipment, and procedures designed to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute pertinent, timely, and accurate information to decision makers. While marketing research is concerned mainly with the actual content of the information and how it is to be generated, the information system is concerned with managing the flow of data from many different projects and secondary sources to the managers who will use it. This requires database to organize and store the information and a decision support system (DSS) to retrieve data, transform it into usable information, and disseminate to users.

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