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74337_21

74337_21

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Published by: api-3774614 on Oct 18, 2008
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05/09/2014

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QUINOLINE

Replacing one carbon atom of naphthalene with a nitrogen atom creates the isomeric quinoline (melting point: \u201315.6oC, boiling point: 238oC, density: 1.0929) andiso-quinoline (melting point: 26.5oC, boiling point: 243oC, density: 1.0986).

Quinoline is isolated from coal-tar distillates in a process in which the tar acids are removed by caustic extraction, and the oil is distilled to pro- duce the methylnaphthalene fraction (230 to 280oC). Washing with dilute sulfuric acid produces sulfate salts, from which the tar bases are liberated by treatment with caustic followed by distillation. The composition of this product is typically 92% quinoline and 5%iso-quinoline by weight with smaller amounts of all monomethylquinolines, 2,8-dimethylquinoline, and some homologues ofiso-quinoline.

Iso-quinoline (>95% pure) can be isolated by treating a crude fraction
with hydrochloric acid followed by addition of an alcoholic solution of
cupric chloride in a mole ratio of 1:2 CuCl2/iso-quinoline.
SeeNaphthalene.
2.442
ISO-QUINOLINE
SeeQuinoline.
2.443
RARE GASES

Oxygen (approximately 20% by volume) and nitrogen (approximately 80% by volume) are the primary components of the atmosphere, but air also con- tains argon, neon, krypton, and xenon (approximately 1% by volume).

Argon, neon, krypton, and xenon are all produced commercially as by- products from large cryogenic air separation plants. The distillation of liq- uid air is normally performed in the double-column arrangement (Fig. 1). The rare gases are produced in side columns operated in conjunction with the standard double-column plant.

Accumulated
liquid oxygen
Cold air
Lower or
high-
pressure
column
Upper or
low-
pressure
column
Cold nitrogen vapor
Cold waste nitrogen
Condenser
Condenser
Liquid oxygen
Air (vapor)
Liquidfeedt
ouppercolum
n
FIGURE 1A double-column distillation unit for production of rare gases.
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