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Peter Drucker

Peter Drucker

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Peter Drucker
Peter Drucker
\u201cManagement by Objectives\u201d
\u201cManagement by Objectives\u201d
By Felipe Cazou

The son of a high level civil servant in theHabs burg empire, Drucker was born in Vienna, the capital ofAust ria, in a small village named Kaasgraben (now a suburb ofVienna, part of the 19th district,D\u00f6bling). Following the defeat ofAus tria-Hungary inW orld

War I, there were few opportunities for employment in Vienna so after finishing school

he went toGerm any, first working in banking and then in journalism. While in
Germany, he earned a doctorate in international law. The rise ofNazis m forced him to
leave Germany in 1933. After spending four years inLondon, in 1937 he moved
permanently to the United States, where he became a university professor as well as
af reelanc e writer and business guru. In 1943 he became a naturalized citizen of the

United States. He taught at New York University as a Professor of Management from

1950 to 1971. From 1971 to his death he was the Clarke Professor of Social Science
andManagem ent at Claremont Graduate University.
His career as a business thinker took off in 1945, when his initial writings on politics
and society won him access to the internal workings of General Motors, one of the
largest companies in the world at that time. His experiences inEurope had left him
fascinated with the problem of authority. He shared his fascination withDonalds on

Brown, the mastermind behind the administrative controls at GM. Brown invited him
in to conduct what might be called a political audit. The resulting Concept of the
Corporation popularized GM's multidivisional structure and led to numerous articles,

consulting engagements, and additional books.
Drucker was interested in the growing effect of people who worked with their minds
rather than their hands. He was intrigued by employees who knew more about certain
subjects than their bosses or colleagues and yet had to cooperate with others in a
large organization. Rather than simply glorify the phenomenon as the epitome of
human progress, Drucker analyzed it and explained how it challenged the common
thinking about how organizations should be run. Drucker died November 11,2005 in

Claremont, California of natural causes. He was 95.
Biography
Biography
Management By Objectives Theory
Management By Objectives Theory
\ue000What is this theory about?
What is this theory about?
MBO (Management By Objectives)
MBO (Management By Objectives) relies on the defining of objectives for each
relies on the defining of objectives for each
employee and then to compare and to direct their performance against the objectives
employee and then to compare and to direct their performance against the objectives
which have been set. It aims to increase the performance of the organization by
which have been set. It aims to increase the performance of the organization by
matching organizational goals with the objectives of subordinates throughout the
matching organizational goals with the objectives of subordinates throughout the
organization. Ideally, employees receive strong input to identify their objectives, time
organization. Ideally, employees receive strong input to identify their objectives, time
lines for completion, etc.
lines for completion, etc.
MBO includes continuous tracking of the processes and providing feedback to reach
MBO includes continuous tracking of the processes and providing feedback to reach
the objectives.
the objectives.
\ue000Principles of Management by Objectives:
Principles of Management by Objectives:
- Cascading of organizational goals and objectives,
- Cascading of organizational goals and objectives,
- Specific objectives for each member,
- Specific objectives for each member,
- Participative decision making,
- Participative decision making,
- Explicit time period, and
- Explicit time period, and
- Performance evaluation and provide feedback.
- Performance evaluation and provide feedback.
\ue000Management by Objectives also introduced the SMART method for checking the
Management by Objectives also introduced the SMART method for checking the
validity of the objectives, which should be 'SMART':
validity of the objectives, which should be 'SMART':
- Specific
- Specific
- Measurable
- Measurable
- Achievable
- Achievable
- Realistic, and
- Realistic, and
- Time-related.
- Time-related.

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