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Perm 02

Perm 02

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Pamphlet II in the Permaculture Design Course Series
Publisher and Distributor of Permaculture Publications

Barking Frogs Permaculture Center
P.O. Box 52, Sparr FL 32192-0052 USA
Email: YankeePerm@aol.com

Edited from the Transcript of the Permaculture Design Course
The Rural Education Center, Wilton, NH USA 1981
Reproduction of this Pamphlet Is Free and Encouraged

This is t he second in a series of 15 pamphlet s based on t he 1981 Permacult ure
Design Course given by Bill Mollison at The Rural Educat ion Cent er, Wilt on, New
Hampshire, USA. Elizabet h Beyor, w it hout compensat ion, t ranscribed t he t ape recordings

of t he course and subsequent ly edit ed t he t ranscript s int o 15 pamphlet s. Lat er, Thelma
Snell produced t he t ypescript f or all pamphlet s. Lisa Barnes laid out and made
mechanicals of the original editions in additon to producing the artw ork retained in this
edit ion. More recent ly, Meara Culligan ent ered all 15 pamphlet s ont o comput er disk,

permitting use of easier- to- read typefaces. From time to time, e have added some
further light editing to increase the readability of the pamphlets.
In deference to the monumental task of love represented by Bill's assembly of the

Permaculture Design Course, and by the subsequent volunteer efforts leading to these
pamphlet s, Yankee Permacult ure has placed t hem in t he public domain. Their
reproduct ion is f ree t o all and highly encouraged.

The pamphlet s are now available on comput er disk, individually or as a set . See our
order form for details.

We have some pamphlet s t ranslat ed int o Spanish, French and German. Volunt eers are now needed to complete these translations and to translate these pamphlets into ot her languages. Yankee Permacult ure cont inues t o depend on volunt eers f or all of our publicat ions. To help, cont act us at t he address on t he cover.

For Mother Earth
Dan & Cynt hia Hemenw ay, Sparr, Florida, June, 2001.
Third edition
Permaculture Design Course Pamphlet Series
QuantityPr ic e
Complete Set of 15 Pamphlets.Bill Mollison. $35
__ $_________
Complete Set on Disk
$50.00 SET FD__ $_________
I An Introduction to Permaculture. (Updated resources.)
__ $_________
II Permaculture in Humid Landscapes.
__ $_________
III Permaculture in Arid Landscapes,
__ $_________
IV Permaculture on Low Islands.(See V for combined price.)
V Permaculture on High Islands.
(IV, V, & VI offered as one pamphlet.)
__ $_________
VI Permaculture on Granitic Landscapes.(See V for combined price.)
VII Permaculture for Fire Control.(See XV for combined price.)
VIII Designing for Permaculture.
__ $_________
IX Permaculture Techniques.(New material added, new edition)
__ $_________
X Forests in Permaculture.
__ $_________
XI Water in Permaculture.
__ $_________
XII Permaculture for Urban Areas & Urban-Rural Linkages.With New Resource List$3.00
__ $_________
XIII The Permaculture Community.
__ $_________
XIV The Permaculture Alternative.
__ $_________
XV Permaculture for Millionaires.
__ $_________
Postage & handling. $5 plus 10 % to the US, 20% elsewhere.
All funds must be in US dollars in a check drawn on a US bank or by International Postal Money order. Make
checks payable to: "Yankee Permaculture." Make postal money orders payable to: "Dan or Cynthia Hemenway."
For all Yankee Permaculture publications, please add US$5.00 plus10% postage & handling for shipments to the
US and 20% for shipments to other countries. There is a surcharge for payment by electronic deposit. Inquire for details.
Prices subject to change without notice.
Pamphlet II Permacult ure in Humid Landscapes Page 1.

The category we are in now is hu- mid landscapes, which means a rain- fall of more t han 30 inches. Our t hesis is the storage of this water on the landscape. The important part is that America is not doing it .

The humid landscape is water con- trolled, and unless it is an extremely new landscape- volcanic or newly faulted--it has softly rounded out- lines. When you are walking up the valley, or walking on the ridge, ob- serve that there is a rounded 'S' shaped profile t o t he hills.

Where the landscape turns from convex to concave occurs a critical point t hat we call a keypoint .*

The main valley is the main flow, with many little creeks entering. At the valley head where these creeks start, we locate the major keypoint. From there on, the keyline starts to fall from one in 1,000 to one in 2,000 below contour. The dams we make in t he lower valleys will be slight ly low- er at each point. They will not be at t he keypoint .

Rain falling on the hilltop runs off.

The paths described by single rain- drops, wherever they fall, are simi- lar in that they cross contours at right angles, because that is the shortest drop between two contours. Water takes the shortest path across the landscape from where it falls to where it hits the river line. It is along this path that raindrops are doing t heir t hing. As soon as t hey are in t he river valley, t hey are off t o t he sea.

It is possible to locate the keypoint from a contour map. Find where the contours start to spread. That is the keypoint .

Having found the keypoint, we can now treat the whole landscape as if it were a roof and a tank. In a fairly de- scending line, falling gently away

from the horizontal, we put in a groove around the hill. This is the highest point at which we can work with mechanical tools. Above that, it is too steep. We make a little shelf around t he hill leading t o t he keypoint . No matter where this water was go- ing, we have now st art ed t o divert it , bringing it right around the hill to the keypoint. In effect, we have put a gutter around our roof, a very gently falling gutter. We started at the key- point and extended a line that we lift- ed one foot at every 2,000 feet. We want to create a very, very gentle fall. Water just moves along it, and that is all. We have directed the wa- t er t o our keypoint .

At the keypoint, we put a little dam; for it is the highest point in the profile of the valley that we can eco-

nomically store water. It is a rather deep little dam, and we need a fair amount of Earth to build it. It is not the most economical dam that we will have, but it gathers all the water from the top of the hill to that point. We can make that keypoint dam as large as we can afford. It will enable us at any time of the year to run wa- t er right around t his cont our and let it fall on any area t hat we want . We lead the water out through the wall of the dam, either by siphon or a lock-pipe, allowing it to enter a contour drain.

We control the flow in the drain by a sheet of canvas or plastic, fastening it like a flag to a very light plastic pipe. A chain at t aches t o t he ot her end of the flag, serving as a weight. We may peg that flag down within the drain, holding back the flow until the

*Bill's treatment of keyline differs signifi-
cantly from that of P. A. Yeomans, origi-
nator of the keyline plan. For a more de-
tailed and more accurate treatment of
keyline, see Water for Every Farm--

Yeomans Keyline Plan, an updated ver-

sion of Yeomans' work available from
Yankee Permaculture at the address on the

Having found the keypoint, we can now treat the whole landscape as if it were a roof and
a tank.
All runnoff fro
above the diversio
drain is collected
a t
the keypoint. Thi
can be directed fro
an irrigation chann
e l
to any other poi
n t
below. Slopes
o f
these channels ran
g e
from 1:200 t
0 .

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