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Fa Lab

Fa Lab

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Published by: api-3831923 on Oct 18, 2008
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5.1 AIM

To become familiar with modelling and analysis of power systems under faulted condition and to compute the fault level, post-fault voltages and currents for different types of faults, both symmetric and unsymmetric.


i. To carryout fault analysis for symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults in small systems using the Thevenin\u2019s equivalent circuit in the sequence and phase domains at the faulted bus but without the use of software.

ii. To conduct fault analysis on a given system using software available and obtain fault analysis report with fault level and current at the faulted point and post-fault voltages and currents in the network for the following faults

(a) Three-phase-to- ground
(b) Line-to-ground
(c) Line-to-Line
(d) Double-line-to-ground
iii. To study the variation in fault levels and currents in the system when it is
interconnected to neighbouring systems
\u2018FAULT ANALYSIS\u2019 module of AU Powerlab or equivalent.
5.4.1 Introduction

Short circuit studies are performed to determine bus voltages and currents flowing in different parts the system when it is subjected to a fault. The current flowing immediately after the fault consists of an a.c component which eventually reaches steady state and a fast decaying d.c component which decays to zero. Only the a.c component is considered in the analysis. The analysis is done using phasor technique assuming the system to be under quasi-steady state and is done for various types of faults such as three-phase-to- ground, line-to-ground, line-to-line and double-line-to-ground. The results of fault studies are used to select the circuit breakers, set protective relays and to assess the voltage dips during fault. It is one of the primary studies to be performed whenever system expansion is planned.

5.4.2 Modelling Details

The following approximations are usually made in fault analysis:
1. Prefault load currents are neglected.
2. Transformer taps are assumed to be nominal.
3. A symmetric three phase power system is considered.
4. Transmission line shunt capacitance and transformer magnetising impedances are

5. Series resistances of transmission lines are neglected.
6. The negative sequence impedance of alternators are assumed to be the same as their

positive sequence impedance.

In the case of symmetrical faults, it is sufficient to determine the currents and voltages in one phase. Hence the analysis is carried out on per phase basis (using + ve sequence impedance network). In the case of unsymmetrical faults, the method of symmetrical components is used.

Sequence Impedances of Power System Components
The sequence impedances of power system components namely generators, transmission
lines and transformers are required for modelling and analysis of unsymmetrical faults.

In the case of overhead transmission lines the positive-and negative-sequence impedances are the same and the zero sequence impedance depends on ground wire, tower footing resistance and grounding adopted. In the case of transformers, the positive-and negative- sequence impedances are the same and the zero sequence impedance depends on transformer winding connection, method of neutral grounding and transformer type (shell or core). The positive-, negative-and zero-sequence impedances are different in the case of rotating equipment like synchronous generator, synchronous motor and induction motors. Estimation of sequence impedances of the components and assembling of zero-, positive-and negative-sequence impedance networks are the major steps in unsymmetrical fault analysis.

Circuit Parameters for Momentary and Interrupting Current Calculations

The momentary or first cycle current is used to evaluate the momentary current carrying capacity of the circuit breaker. The momentary current is computed using the subtransient reactances of the utility sources (neighbouring systems), the synchronous generators, synchronous motors and induction motors. The interrupting fault current is used to decide interrupting capacity of the circuit breakers. This current is computed using subtransient reactance for generators and transient reactance for synchronous motors. Alternatively the reactance of the rotating machine is chosen as per the multiplying factors listed in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1 Multipliers for Short Circuit Current Calculations
Type of Rotating Machine
First Cycle

Generator, hydro generators with
amortisseur windings &

1.0 Xd\u201d
1.5 Xd\u201d
Synchronous motors
Induction motors
1.0 Xd\u201d
1.5 Xd\u201d
Above 1000 hp at 1800 rpm or
1.0 Xd\u201d
1.5 Xd\u201d
Above 250 hp at 3600 rpm
1.0 Xd\u201d
1.5 Xd\u201d
All other, 50 hp and above
1.2 Xd\u201d
3.0 Xd\u201d
Less than 50 hp
5.4.3. Short Circuit Computations
Symmetrical Faults
Since the fault is symmetric the analysis is carried out on per phase basis.

A short circuit represents a structural change in the network which is equivalent to the addition of an impedance (in the case of a symmetric short, three equal impedances) at the location of fault. The changes in voltages and currents that result from this structural change can be analysed using Thevenin\u2019s theorem which states:

The changes that occur in the network voltages and currents due to the addition of an impedance between two network nodes are identical with those voltages and currents that would be caused by an emf placed in series with the impedance and having a magnitude and polarity equal to the prefault voltage that existed between the nodes in question and all other sources being zeroed.

The post-fault voltages and currents in the network are obtained by superposing these
changes on the prefault voltages and currents.
Short circuit calculations in a small power system can be demonstrated using the
following two-bus example.
Example 5.1

For the two-bus system shown in Fig 5.1,determine the fault current at the fault point and in other elements for a fault at bus 2 with a fault impedance zf . Load current can be assumed to be neglible. The prefault voltages at all the buses can be assumed to be 1.0 p.u. The sub transient reactance of the generators and positive sequence reactance of other elements are given. Assume that the resistances of all the elements are neglible.


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