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GaussLab

GaussLab

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EXPERIMENT 3
LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS - I : SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED
PROBLEMS USING GAUSS-SEIDEL METHOD
3.1 AIM
(i) To understand, the basic aspects of steady state analysis of power systems that are
required for effective planning and operation of power systems.

(ii) To understand, in particular, the mathematical formulation of load flow model in complex form and a simple method of solving load flow problems of small sized system using Gauss-Seidel iterative algorithm

3.2 OBJECTIVES

i. To write a computer program to solve the set of non-linear load flow equations using
Gauss-Seidel Load Flow (GSLF) algorithm and present the results in the format
required for system studies.

ii. To investigate the convergence characteristics of GSLF algorithm for normally
loaded small system for different acceleration factors.
iii. To investigate the effects on the load flow results, load bus voltages and line /
transformer loadings, due to the following control actions:

a. Variation of voltage settings of P-V buses
b. Variation of shunt compensation at P-Q buses
c. Variation of tap settings of transformer
d. Generation shifting or rescheduling.

3.3 SOFTWARE REQUIRED
GAUSS \u2013 SEIDEL METHOD module of AU Powerlab or equivalent
3.4 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
3.4.1 Need For Load Flow Analysis

Load Flow analysis, is the most frequently performed system study by electric utilities. This analysis is performed on a symmetrical steady-state operating condition of a power system under \u201cnormal\u201d mode of operation and aims at obtaining bus voltages and line / transformer flows for a given load condition. This information is essential both for long term planning and next day operational planning. In long term planning, load flow analysis, helps in investigating the effectiveness of alternative plans and choosing the \u201cbest\u201d plan for system expansion to meet the projected operating state. In operational planning, it helps in choosing the \u201cbest\u201d unit commitment plan and generation schedules to run the system efficiently for the next day\u2019s load condition without violating the bus voltage and line flow operating limits.

3-1
3.4.2 Description of Load Flow Problem

In the load flow analysis, the system is considered to be operating under steady state balanced condition and per phase analysis is used. With reasonable assumptions and approximations, a power system under this condition may be represented by a power network as shown by the single-line diagram in Annexure 3.1.

The network consists of a number of buses (nodes) representing either generating stations or bulk power substations, switching stations interconnected by means of transmission lines or power transformers. The bus generation and demand are characterized by complex powers flowing into and out of the buses respectively. Each transmission line is

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-nominal tap ratio is
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lb
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represented as shunt susceptance.

Load Flow analysis is essentially concerned with the determination of complex bus voltages at all buses, given the network configuration and the bus demands. Let the given system demand (sum of all the bus demands) be met by a specific generation schedule. A generation schedule is nothing but a combination of MW generation (chosen within their ratings) of the various spinning generators the total of which should match the given system demand plus the transmission losses. It should be noted that there are many generation schedules available to match the given system demand and one such schedule is chosen for load flow analysis.

The \u201cIdeal\u201d Load Flow problem is stated as follows:
Given: The network configuration (bus admittance matrix), and all the bus power injections
(bus injection refers to bus generation minus bus demand)
To determine: The complex voltages at all the buses.
The steady state of the system is given by the state vectorX defined as
X=
\ue011
\ue012
1
\ue012
2
\ue013\ue014
\ue013\ue016
\ue015
NV1V2\u2026\u2026. VN)T = (
\ue017
TVT)T
Once the \u2018state\u2019 of the system is known, all the other quantities of interest in the power
network can be computed.
The above statement of Load Flow problem will be modified later after taking into account
certain practical constraints.
3.4.3 Development of Load Flow Model
The Load Flow model in complex form is obtained by writing one complex power
matching equation at each bus.
3-2
.
Vt
PIk +jQIk = (PGk - PDk) + j (QGk - QDk)
PGk+ jQGk
G PDk+ jQDk
k
Vk
k
Vk
(Pk + jQk)
Ik
(Pk+ jQk)
Ik
(a)
(b)
Referring to Fig 3.1 (b) the complex power injection (generation minus demand) at the kth
bus is equal to the complex power flowing into the network at that bus which is given by
PIk + JQIk = Pk + jQk

(3.1)
In expanded form
(PGk - PDk) + j (QGk - QDk) = VkIk*

(3.2)
The network equation relating bus voltage vectorV with bus current vectorI is
YV = I
(3.3)
Taking the kth component ofI from (3.3) and substituting for Ik* in (3.2) we get the power
flow model in complex form as
N
PIk + jQIk = Vk
\ue018
\ue019
km* Vm*;
k=1,2,\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026 N
(3.4)
m=1
In (3.4) there are N complex variable equations from which the N unknown complex
variables, V1,\u2026\u2026VN can be determined.
Transmission line / Transformer Flow Equation:

In a Load Flow package after solving equation (3.4) for complex bus voltages using any iterative method, the active and reactive power flows in all the lines/ transformers are to be computed. A common

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Fig 3.2. For a transmission line set the variable \u201ca\u201d equal to unity and for a transformer set variable bc equal to zero. The expression for power flow in line / transformer k-m from the kth bus to the mth bus, measured at the kth bus end is given by (refer Fig 3.2)

Vk
a:1
Pmk + jQmk
Vm
Ik
Pkm + jQkm
It
ykm
Im
t
k
jbc
jbc
m
Fig 3.1 Complex Power Balancing at a Bus
Fig 3.2 PI Equivalent Circuit of a Transmission Line / Transformer
3-3

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