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SmibTLab

# SmibTLab

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06/14/2009

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6-1
EXPERIMENT 6
TRANSIENT AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS: SINGLE-
MACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM
6.1 AIM
To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability
analysis of Single-Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system.
6.2 OBJECTIVES
i. To understand modelling and analysis of transient and small signal stability of a
SMIB power system.

ii. To examine the transient stability of a SMIB and determine the critical clearing
time of the system through simulation by trial and error method and by direct
method.

iii. To determine transient stability margin (MW) for different fault conditions.
iv. To obtain linearised swing equation and to determine the roots of characteristics
equation, damped frequency of oscillation and undamped natural frequency.
6.3 SOFTWARE REQUIRED
TRANSIENT / SS STABILITY-SMIB module of AU Powerlab or equivalent
6.4 THEORETICAL BACK GROUND
6.4.1. Stability:

Stability problem is concerned with the behaviour of power system when it is subjected to disturbances and is classified into small signal stability problem if the disturbances are small and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large. The description of the problems are as follows.

Transient Stability

When a power system is under steady state, the load plus transmission loss equals to the generation in the system. The generating units run at synchronous speed and system frequency, voltage, current and power flows are steady. When a large disturbance such as three phase fault, loss of load, loss of generation etc., occurs the power balance is upset and the generating units rotors experience either acceleration or deceleration. The system may come back to a steady state condition maintaining synchronism or it may break into subsystems or one or more machines may pull out of synchronism. In the former case the system is said to be stable and in the later case it is said to be unstable.

6-2
Small Signal Stability

When a power system is under steady state, normal operating condition, the system may be subjected to small disturbances such as variation in load and generation, change in field voltage, change in mechanical torque etc. The nature of system response to small disturbances depends on the operating condition, the transmission system strength, types of controllers etc. Instability that may result from small disturbances may be of two forms

(i)
Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of synchronising torque
(ii)
Rotor oscillations of increasing magnitude due to lack of sufficient
damping torque.

Lack of sufficient synchronising torque results in instability through non-oscillatory
mode shown in fig. 6.1. Fig. 6.2. shows the instability of a synchronous machine
through oscillations of increasing amplitude.

\u00a1
t
Fig 6.1 Non-Oscillatory instability
Fig. 6.2. Oscillatory instability

For small disturbance, the non-linear equations characterising the dynamics of power system may be linearised around an operating point for the purpose of analysis. Small signal analysis using linear techniques provides valuable information about the dynamic characteristics of the system and assists in its design. The location of the roots of the characteristic equation of the linearised differential equation will reveal the stability status of the system. We can also obtain the response of rotor angle and frequency of the rotor of the synchronous machines.

6-3
6.4.2. Mathematical Modelling For Transient Stability
Consider a single machine connected to an infinite bus shown in fig. 6.3. An infinite
bus is a source of invariable frequency and voltage.
Line 1
Line 2
Infinite bus
Generator
Et
Transformer
EB
Fig 6.3. Single machine connected to infinite bus system
The equivalent circuit with the generator represented by classical model and all
resistances neglected is shown in fig. 6.4.
jX1
EB
\u00a2
\u00a3
o
jX\u2019d
jXtr
It
Et
E\u2019
\u00a4
\u00a5
\u00a6
e
jX2
Fig 6.4. Equivalent circuit
jX
E\u2019
\u00a7
\u00a8
EB
\u00a7\ue000
\u00a9
o
Pe
Fig. 6.5. Reduced Equivalent Circuit
E\u2019 = Et + jX\u2019dIt
X = X\u2019d +XE where XE = Xtr + X1 || X2
Pe = |E\u2019||EB
\ue001\ue003
\ue002\ue005
\ue004\ue007
\ue006\ue009
\ue008
\ue00a"
!
max
#%
\$\ue007
&(
'
(6.1)
X
where
E\u2019 = e.m.f behind machine transient reactance
'
)"
02
14
35
16
08
7\ue003
9A
@C
BE
DG
FI
HP
3R
QS
0T
DV
UT
WA
DY
X\ue003
3A
3`
1I
UT
a6
9A
X
hronously rotating reference phaser EB
bd
c
o. E\u2019