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Areva P443 Protection by Areva Paper

Areva P443 Protection by Areva Paper

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Published by Rajesh Bodduna

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Published by: Rajesh Bodduna on Nov 07, 2011
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07/26/2013

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MiCO
 Mho
: DISTANCE PROTECTION DESIGNED FOR EASE OF APPLICATION
Simon RICHARDS Alex APOSTOLOV Sam SambasivanAREVA T&D, Stafford, UK AREVA T&D, Los Angeles, CA AREVA T&D,Bethlehem,PA
INTRODUCTION
This paper is a technical introduction to the MiCO
 Mho
 P443 and P445 relays. Deployment in distance protectionmode is discussed in detail, with later sections introducingInterMiCOM
64
integral teleprotection.
DISTANCE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS
Distance protection has two fundamental designrequirements. (1) Firstly, the relay must trip quickly forany genuine in-zone fault, to ensure that the systemstability is not compomised and damage is minimized.(2) Secondly, the relay must remain stable for all loadand through-fed conditions. This latter point isparticularly critical to avoid constraining the loadability of the line, and to avoid sympathetic unwanted trips frompropagating through the power system under extremeconditions (such as power shortages, neighbouring circuitoutages, power swings etc.). Good load avoidance is anessential defence mechanism in avoiding blackouts andunnecessary islanding.A view of the trip and restrain (stable) requirements isshown in Figure 1.In the figure, the protected line impedance is shown,along with an extended area to the right where fault arcingresistance may appear. The effective fault impedancemeasured by a distance relay may thus lie within thisshaded region. As each protected line has at least oneremote end terminal, there is likely to be an additionalcurrent infeed to any in-zone fault. This remote infeedserves to magnify the apparent fault arc impedance asmeasured from one line end, with the effect becomingmore pronounced as the fault position assumed movestowards the remote line end. References [1, 2] detailremote infeed effects.In order to ensure tripping for all genuine faults, the relaycharacteristic must include the shaded region, for allzones up to and including the longest reaching zone(typically Zone 3) reach point.It is also evident that the relay must avoid the load area.The shaded load region shows the load impedance thatmay be presented to the relay under normal systemoperation, for example with the neighboring circuit in adouble circuit line being in-service. However, in manycases lower minimum load impedance needs to beavoided, as shown by the unshaded extension of the loadcone. This may consider circuit overloading, which couldbe +20% or more of full load current, and also thedoubling effect where an adjacent circuit trips/opens.Overall, it is common to ensure stability for 2.5 to fourtimes full load current flowing.
XRZ
Load
Arc impedance withRemote end infeedZ
Line
Load impedanceregionload exportload import
 
Fig. 1 Distance Relay Operating RequirementsRELAY SETTINGS
From the previous section it is straightforward to deducethat distance relay settings fall into two categories.Category (1) is to ensure tripping for all faults within thereach of the distance zones. Thus all settings here are
 
related to the impedance of the protected line, and follow-on adjacent lines.Category (2) is to ensure load avoidance, commonlycalled “load blinding”. All such settings are related to theload flow, ensuring that line loadability is not constrained.The MiCO
 Mho
has been designed such that the usermerely inputs the protected line data, and the load data,and the relay will then self-set accordingly. Withapproximately 50% of all investigated “maloperations”found to be the result of poor settings, then a productwhich has been designed with such simplicity shouldreduce the risk of typical errors occurring.The relay uses an intelligent overview of the protectedline to implement a “Simple”-set option, and in doing sothe user has only a few key parameters to set.
SIMPLE AND ADVANCED SETTING MODES
In the majority of cases, “
Simple
” setting isrecommended, and allows the user merely to enter the lineparameters such as length, impedances and residualcompensation. Then, instead of entering distance zoneimpedance reaches in ohms, zone settings are entered interms of percentage of the protected line (example, Zone 1= 80%), as shown in Figure 2.
Fig. 2 Simple Setting of Zone Reaches
Each Zone can be set with a reach relative to the protectedline, or if fine-tuning is required, an “advanced” settingoption can be switched-in later.The “
Advanced
” setting mode allows the user full accessto all individual distance ohmic reach, filter and residualcompensation settings per zone. This makes the relayadaptable to networks where the protected and adjacentlines are of dissimilar construction, requiring independentzone characteristic angles and residual compensation.The relay can be applied with mho, or quadrilateralcharacteristics – to suit the utility’s preference. When aquadrilateral characteristic is applied, this requires zoneresistive reaches to be set too – the right and left-handlines.
LOAD BLINDING
The MiCO
 Mho
uses an advanced load blinder which isdesigned to allow better resistive reach coverage. Theblinder is basically formed from an underimpedancecircle, with radius set by the user and two blinder linescrossing through the origin of the impedance plane. It cutsthe area of the impedance characteristic that may result inan operation under maximum dynamic load conditions.Figure 3 shows a typical mho forward zone application,coupled with Load Blinder action.
P1725ENa
Zone Reach ZBlinder Radius
LoadBlinder  Angle
b
Variable mhoexpansion bypolarizing ratioTimeDelaytLine Angle
 
Fig. 3 Settings for a Mho Zone, showing Blinder
The radius of the circle should be less than the minimumdynamic load impedance. The blinder angle should be sethalf way between the worst case power factor angle, andthe line impedance angle.In the case of a fault on the line it is no longer necessaryto avoid load. So, for that phase, the blinder can bebypassed, allowing the full mho characteristic to measure.Phase undervoltage detectors are the chosen elements togovern switching of the blinders. Under suchcircumstances, the low voltage could not be explained bynormal voltage excursion tolerances on-load. A fault isdefinitely present on the phase in question, and it isacceptable to override the blinder action and allow thedistance zones to trip according to the entire zone shape.The benefit is that the resistive coverage for faults near tothe relay location can be higher.
 
The undervoltage setting must be lower than the lowestphase-neutral voltage under heavy load flow anddepressed system voltage conditions. The typicalmaximum V< setting is 70% Vph-neutral.
DELTA CURRENT DETECTION
Many of the application difficulties for distance protectionhave historically been related to (in) correct faulted phaseselection. For example, in the case of a close-up reverseearth fault, a large amount of neutral current will bemeasured by the relay. This neutral current is alsoincluded in the earth loop impedance measurement for theunfaulted phases (by means of residual compensation),and the 120
o
displacement between phase voltages mayallow the fault to appear in a forward trip characteristic.Similarly, it can be difficult to ensure that the correctphase-phase element will be allowed to measure in thecase of a double phase to earth fault, whilst restraining theinvolved earth pair zones. The latter is necessary to avoidoverreach – particularly where quadrilateralcharacteristics are employed. In this respect, AREVAdecided to use a proven and successful technique, used inthe previous two generations of their transmission lineprotection – delta current phase selection [3]. Figure 4shows the principle.
Fig 4. Delta Current Phase Selection
Selection of the faulted phase(s) is performed bycomparing the magnitudes of the three phase-to-phasesuperimposed currents. A single phase fault produces thesame superimposed current on two of these signals andzero on the third. A phase-to-phase or double phase-to-earth fault produces one signal which is larger than theother two. A three phase fault produces threesuperimposed currents which are the same size. Figure 4shows how the change in current can be used to select thefaulted phase for a CN fault. A superimposed current isdeemed to be large enough to be included in the selectionif it is greater than 80% of the largest superimposedcurrent.The large advantage of using delta – which is effectivelythe magnitude of a step change – is that it is naturallybiased towards detecting a fault. Faults produce a definitestep change, whereas power swings and other unfaultedphase effects yield a lesser delta. Delta phase selection isused to control the distance elements, and has theadvantage that it has no associated settings – thesensitivity is internally biased, and equally applicable forstrong, and weak infeeds. The relay is thus easier to applythan designs which use underimpedance, overcurrent, orother starters to detect a fault.
POWER SWING BLOCKING
Superimposed current is also used as the criterion todetect power swings. Power swings generate acontinually changing current, and hence prolonged pickupof delta detectors. Pickup for longer than 3 cycles is usedto initiate power swing blocking, and keep relay stability.An advantage again is that no threshold settings orimpedance starters are required – the technique works byits nature in all applications. Figure 5 shows anabbreviated logic representation of the PSB function. The
I pickup is internally set/adaptive – so nothing to worrythe user.
I Pickup Any Distance Start
P1654ENa
&
t0t03 CyclesPSB ResetDelay
&
Fault during swing logict0Blocking of selecteddistancezonesPSB Timeout
D
 
Fig 5. Delta Current Phase Selection
Two timers are shown in the logic: an unblocking‘timeout’ that can be used to force tripping for swingswhich do not stabilize within an allowed period (todeliberately split the system), and secondly: a ‘resetdelay’. The latter is used to ensure that where the swingcurrent passes through a natural minimum, and
Idetection might reset, that the detection does not dropout/chatter. It can thus be used to ensure a continualPower Swing indication when pole slipping (an unstableout of step condition) is in progress.The relay tracks the profile of the delta current, and if atany point there is an unexpected step change in theprevailing delta, blocking must cease as a fault is nowpresent. This is termed the “Fault in Swing Logic” inFigure 5. Thus, the trip time and zone selectivity for anyfault inception during a power swing is as fast and reliableas had no swing been present.
ABBCCA
Change! Change! No Change! 
1 CycleComparison1 CycleComparison
Ground Fault,Phase C 

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