related to the impedance of the protected line, and follow-on adjacent lines.Category (2) is to ensure load avoidance, commonlycalled “load blinding”. All such settings are related to theload flow, ensuring that line loadability is not constrained.The MiCO
has been designed such that the usermerely inputs the protected line data, and the load data,and the relay will then self-set accordingly. Withapproximately 50% of all investigated “maloperations”found to be the result of poor settings, then a productwhich has been designed with such simplicity shouldreduce the risk of typical errors occurring.The relay uses an intelligent overview of the protectedline to implement a “Simple”-set option, and in doing sothe user has only a few key parameters to set.
SIMPLE AND ADVANCED SETTING MODES
In the majority of cases, “
” setting isrecommended, and allows the user merely to enter the lineparameters such as length, impedances and residualcompensation. Then, instead of entering distance zoneimpedance reaches in ohms, zone settings are entered interms of percentage of the protected line (example, Zone 1= 80%), as shown in Figure 2.
Fig. 2 Simple Setting of Zone Reaches
Each Zone can be set with a reach relative to the protectedline, or if fine-tuning is required, an “advanced” settingoption can be switched-in later.The “
” setting mode allows the user full accessto all individual distance ohmic reach, filter and residualcompensation settings per zone. This makes the relayadaptable to networks where the protected and adjacentlines are of dissimilar construction, requiring independentzone characteristic angles and residual compensation.The relay can be applied with mho, or quadrilateralcharacteristics – to suit the utility’s preference. When aquadrilateral characteristic is applied, this requires zoneresistive reaches to be set too – the right and left-handlines.
uses an advanced load blinder which isdesigned to allow better resistive reach coverage. Theblinder is basically formed from an underimpedancecircle, with radius set by the user and two blinder linescrossing through the origin of the impedance plane. It cutsthe area of the impedance characteristic that may result inan operation under maximum dynamic load conditions.Figure 3 shows a typical mho forward zone application,coupled with Load Blinder action.
Zone Reach ZBlinder Radius
Variable mhoexpansion bypolarizing ratioTimeDelaytLine Angle
Fig. 3 Settings for a Mho Zone, showing Blinder
The radius of the circle should be less than the minimumdynamic load impedance. The blinder angle should be sethalf way between the worst case power factor angle, andthe line impedance angle.In the case of a fault on the line it is no longer necessaryto avoid load. So, for that phase, the blinder can bebypassed, allowing the full mho characteristic to measure.Phase undervoltage detectors are the chosen elements togovern switching of the blinders. Under suchcircumstances, the low voltage could not be explained bynormal voltage excursion tolerances on-load. A fault isdefinitely present on the phase in question, and it isacceptable to override the blinder action and allow thedistance zones to trip according to the entire zone shape.The benefit is that the resistive coverage for faults near tothe relay location can be higher.