Management in essence seeks to optimize performance. The desired results are obtained through the use of a number of tactics and methods. Most, in one way or another are intended to modify the behaviour of people. In as much as in even the most technologically oriented companies personnel performance inevitably influences the work that is done. Behavior is a significant consideration. It is also a highly elusive quality that is pursued usually with the best of intentions and by means of a variety of strategies. Reward and disciplinary applications are two that are well theme of motivating workers for safety of self, other and equipment.
\ue000Motivation for safe attitude of the employees
\ue000Self preservation by the employees
\ue000Personal and material gain for the Organisation
\ue000Loyalty towards the company
\ue000Conformity towards maintenance of any well ordered civilization.
\ue000Rivalry \u2013 it may be appealed to by way of safety contest.
\ue000Good leadership with outstanding traits.
\ue000Good level of Discipline.
Although individuals may be sensitive to the practical losses associated with accidents, society is not so materialistic. Practically without exception a dreadful event for example, Bhopal gas leak. Until the public is sufficiently aroused, safety always seems to have a low priority among the national necessities for human well-being. The cost of injuries and property damage curiously enough does not by itself seem to stir the popular interest to effect safety. However, the question of safety expense versus effectiveness often arises after the safety programs have been instituted. An analogue approach appraisal the performance of educational methods in following safety norms. It is of interest when considering the development of a safety engineering effectiveness measures because the familiar industrial safety programs are notably concerned with improving through education and training programs toward safety.
Participative management is not a new concept either to general management or safety management. However, it often has been adopted only half-heartedly with little systematic though about or commitment to its success. In large part, this has been due to a basic lack of understanding about it, a lack that has frequently contributed to pseudoparticipative approaches hastily and superficially constructed. As a result, lower hierarchical personnel have usually shown a lack of interest in contributing to device that
is seen as merely manipulative. Since obtaining employee and supervisory participation is fundamental to the success of any safety programme, it may be worthwhile to explore the basic concept of participative management and strategies to implement employee and supervisory participation in safety matters.
The technique of participative safety are well known with many companies using one or another form of them. To some extent most companies allow employees and supervisors to participate in safety activities, but the degree of commitment to or understanding of concepts varies widely among organization. Methods of implementing participative safety will be reviewed below:
Commitment to participative action in large part in service company is based upon how managers perceive their subordinates. A person seeking to implement the most advanced form of participation, which is the human resources, approach must have a basic trust and confidence in those subordinates and must be willing to share power and responsibility.
Motivated participation at all levels is the requirement of the day. The comprehension of participative safety concept and theme is necessary for achieving the ultimate goal and profit of the company. The relationship of goal and the work should be analyzed by all. Flow of information regarding this is considered important. This can be achieved through individual training and collective training. The motivation for safety and training is what we have to plan at managerial level.
Training and retraining of employees in safety has been traditionally recommended as a means for improving safety performance. Investigation into most of the accidents which take place on the shop floor, irrespective of whether they arise out of unsafe physical working prevailing conditions or actions of person \u2013 reveal underlying causes which relate to inadequacy of lack of training. In sharp contrast, success stories of industrial unit with good safety performance give evidence of planned training efforts.
d) Training process results in close contact between participants of the faculty, in a congenial atmosphere away from work. This fosters better inter-personal relations.
e) Training helps personalize the attitudes of persons, and is one of the best practical means available to the managers for effective communication with groups.
Hazards in the operations supervised and the technical skills to
Identify and prevent them.
A broad knowledge of company\u2019s safety policy, systems and
Procedure and responsibility for safety.
Techniques of supervision.
Human relations and communications skills.
Safety, as a concept and practice has been in transition since its beginning. More recently, it has shifted from what once was little more than a plain sense approach to eliminating agents of injury to what now is quite often a complex approach to the reliable control of harm. Within the boundaries of safety\u2019s emerging abilities exists a capacity for more than simply the detection of causative relationships and the design of practical controls. These have been safety program routines practically since their inception. The skills involved have increased with each succeeding year. However, the current shift occurs in the growing awareness of and ability to meet the need for effecting the wanted hazard controls. Experience reminds us that injurious occurrences are repeated despite knowledge of their causes or availability of recommended controls.
In the great civilizations of antiquity, slaves did not predominantly do labour. A popular assumption, therefore, that safety was of no concern because the worker was merely a slave, is probably wrong. As a matter of fact, there may have been more concern for the safety of slaves than for free men. There is good evidence of concern over harmful working conditions at the start of the Christian era, although the reason is obscure as to whether this interest was humanitarian or merely a result of the desire to protect one\u2019s investment.
Pliny the Elder described a number of occupational maladies, classifying them as \u201cdiseases of slaves\u201d. The descriptions of the ancient manufacturing and mining operations match the occupational illness and injury producing conditions that we know and try to control in modern times. Some of the processes and their hazards were not new, although it was believed at that time that some, for example, the metal trades, belonged entirely to the day. Modern archaeological
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