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CHUONG~2

CHUONG~2

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Published by: api-3831256 on Oct 18, 2008
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05/09/2014

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CH\u01af\u01a0NG 2:
\u1ea2NH H\u01af\u1edeNG C\u1ee6A NH\u1eeeNG CH\u00cdNH S\u00c1CH TH\u01af\u01a0NG M\u1ea0I
I.Nh\u1eefng h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i trong m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng t\u1eebng ph\u1ea7n: Tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p
\u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc nh\u1ecf
1.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a thu\u1ebf quan nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u
2.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a h\u1ea1n ng\u1ea1ch nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u v\u00e0 tr\u1ee3 c\u1ea5p trong ng\u00e0nh s\u1ea3n

xu\u1ea5t c\u1ea1n h tranh nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u
2.1H\u1ea1n ng\u1ea1ch nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u
2.2Tr\u1ee3 c\u1ea5p cho ng\u00e0nh c\u1ea1nh tranh nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u

3.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u

3.1\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a thu\u1ebf xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u
3.2\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a h\u1ea1n ng\u1ea1ch xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u
3.3\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a tr\u1ee3 c\u1ea5p xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u

II.Nh\u1eefng h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i trong m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng t\u1eebng ph\u1ea5n: Tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p
\u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc l\u1edbn
1.C\u01a1 s\u1edf ph\u00e2n t\u00edch
1.1Nhu c\u1ea7u h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u
1.2\u0110\u01b0\u1eddng cung xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u

2.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a thu\u1ebf quan nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u
3.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a h\u1ea1n ng\u1ea1ch nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u
4.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u song ph\u01b0\u01a1ng
5.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a thu\u1ebf xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u
6.\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a tr\u1ee3 c\u1ea5p xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng v\u1eeba r\u1ed3i \u0111\u00e3 tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y nh\u1eefng c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i kh\u00e1c nhau. Tuy nhi\u00ean, ch\u01b0a ph\u00e2n t\u00edch nhi\u1ec1u \u0111\u1ebfn \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ebfn l\u1ee3i \u00edch \u0111\u1ea1t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c c\u1ee7a qu\u1ed1c gia s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng ch\u00fang. Gi\u1ed1ng v\u1edbi b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch n\u00e0o, ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u01b0a ra c\u0169ng c\u00f3 chi ph\u00ed v\u00e0 ngu\u1ed3n l\u1ee3i c\u1ee7a n\u00f3. Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y s\u1ebd xem x\u00e9t \u0111\u1ebfn

nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi h\u01b0\u1edfng l\u1ee3i v\u00e0 m\u1ea5t m\u00e1t khi nh\u1eefng bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p b\u00f3p m\u00e9o th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u1ef1c
hi\u1ec7n. Hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 th\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a to\u00e0n qu\u1ed1c gia c\u0169ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xem x\u00e9t trong ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y.

\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp c\u1ee7a vi\u1ec7c h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i x\u1ea3y ra trong th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ee7a h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a ch\u1ecbu t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i. Khi vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n t\u00edch \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch li\u00ean quan \u0111\u1ebfn ch\u1ec9 m\u1ed9t th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng ph\u1ee5 \u0111\u1ebfn nh\u1eefng th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng c\u00f3 li\u00ean quan \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ecf qua, l\u00fac \u0111\u00f3 m\u1ed9t ph\u00e2n t\u00edch c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng t\u1eebng ph\u1ea7n s\u1ebd

\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n. Trong khi nh\u1eefng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd nh\u1ea5t r\u01a1i v\u00e0o m\u1ed9t th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng

\u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng, th\u00ec c\u0169ng c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i nh\u1edb \u0111\u1ebfn nh\u1eefng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng ph\u1ee5. B\u1edfi v\u00ec nh\u1eefng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng ph\u1ee5 n\u00e0y ho\u1eb7c nh\u1eefng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng gi\u00e1n ti\u1ebfp th\u01b0\u1eddng th\u00ec quan tr\u1ecdng, n\u00ean nh\u1eefng nh\u00e0 kinh t\u1ebf c\u1ed1 g\u1eafng \u0111\u1ec3 xem x\u00e9t nh\u1eefng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch kinh t\u1ebf trong m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng chung. Trong m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh n\u00e0y th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ee7a t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e2n t\u00edch m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch m\u00f4 ph\u1ecfng v\u00e0 t\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 gi\u00e1n ti\u1ebfp c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh. B\u1edfi v\u00ec c\u1ea3 hai \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng chung v\u00e0 c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng t\u1eebng ph\u1ea7n \u0111\u1ec1u r\u1ea5t quan tr\u1ecdng cho vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n t\u00edch ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch, n\u00ean ta s\u1ebd s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u1ea3 hai c\u00e1h ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ec3 xem x\u00e9t nh\u1eefng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch. Hai ph\u1ea7n \u0111\u1ea7u trong ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c d\u00e0nh cho vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n t\u00edch nh\u1eefng h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i trong m\u1ed9t ng\u1eef c\u1ea3nh c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng t\u1eebng ph\u1ea7n. Ph\u1ea7n th\u1ee9 ba s\u1ebd l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ph\u00e2n t\u00edch theo c\u00e1ch ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng chung.

I. NH\u1eeeNG H\u1ea0N NG\u1ea0CH TH\u01af\u01a0NG M\u1ea0I TRONG M\u00d4 H\u00ccNH C\u00c2N B\u1eb0NG T\u1eeaNG
PH\u1ea6N: TR\u01af\u1edcNG H\u1ee2P \u0110\u1ea4T N\u01af\u1edaC NH\u1ece

Tr\u01b0\u1edbc h\u1ebft, ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd xem x\u00e9t m\u1ed9t th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng m\u00e0 trong \u0111\u00f3 m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc nh\u1ecf
(ng\u01b0\u1eddi nh\u1eadn gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng) s\u1ebd nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u m\u1ed9t s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m b\u1edfi v\u00ec gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 qu\u1ed1c t\u1ebf th\u1ea5p h\u01a1n
gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng trong n\u01b0\u1edbc tr\u01b0\u1edbc khi th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i t\u1ef1 do x\u1ea3y ra (xem \u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb 1). B\u1edfi v\u00ec b\u1ea5t
k\u1ef3 \u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc n\u00e0o \u0111\u1ec1u c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a m\u00e0 n\u00f3 mu\u1ed1n t\u1ea1i gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 qu\u1ed1c
t\u1ebf (Pint), n\u00ean gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 trong n\u01b0\u1edbc (P0) s\u1ebd gi\u1ed1ng v\u1edbi Pint. N\u1ebfu \u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc nh\u1ecf \u0111\u1eb7t ra m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf
quan nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u, th\u00ec gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 trong n\u01b0\u1edbc c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i s\u1ebd gia t\u0103ng b\u1edfi
m\u1ed9t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng thu\u1ebf. V\u1edbi m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf quan t\u00ednh theo gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a, th\u00ec gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 trong n\u01b0\u1edbc b\u00e2y
gi\u1edd s\u1ebd l\u00e0: Pint(1+t) = P1(v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf quan t\u00ednh theo s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng h\u00e0ng nh\u1eadp th\u00ec P1 = Pint +
tspec\u00ecic.). V\u1edbi m\u1ed9t s\u1ef1 gia t\u0103ng c\u1ee7a gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 trong n\u01b0\u1edbc t\u1eeb P0 \u0111\u1ebfn P1, th\u00ec l\u01b0\u1ee3ng cung trong
n\u01b0\u1edbc s\u1ebd gia t\u0103ng t\u1eeb QS0 \u0111\u1ebfn QS1, v\u00e0 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ea7u trong n\u01b0\u1edbc s\u1ebd gi\u1ea3m xu\u1ed1ng t\u1eeb QD0 \u0111\u1ebfn
QD1. L\u00fac \u0111\u00f3, l\u01b0\u1ee3ng h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u s\u1ebd gi\u1ea3m xu\u1ed1ng t\u1eeb (QD0- QS0) \u0111\u1ebfn (QD1- QS1).
V\u1eady \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng th\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng thay \u0111\u1ed5i n\u00e0y l\u00e0 g\u00ec? \u0111\u1ec3 tr\u1ea3 l\u1eddi c\u00e2u h\u1ecfi n\u00e0y ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd xem
x\u00e9t nh\u1eefng chi ph\u00ed v\u00e0 ngu\u1ed3n l\u1ee3i c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n kinh t\u1ebf c\u00f3 li\u00ean quan \u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ed9t ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch
n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3.

\u00d0\u1ed3 th\u1ecb 1: \u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf quan \u0111\u1ebfn th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng ri\u00eang l\u1ebb trong m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc
nh\u1ecf
1/ \u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a thu\u1ebf quan nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u
Trong \u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc nh\u1ecf, vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u1eb7t ra m\u1ed9t t\u1ef7 su\u1ea5t thu\u1ebf quan t s\u1ebd l\u00e0m cho gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 trong n\u01b0\u1edbc gia

t\u0103ng b\u1edfi m\u1ed9t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng tP0, c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 m\u1edbi s\u1ebd b\u1eb1ng Pint(1+t). S\u1ef1 gia t\u0103ng gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 t\u1eeb P0 \u0111\u1ebfn P1 s\u1ebd l\u00e0m cho l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ea7u gi\u1ea3m xu\u1ed1ng t\u1eeb QD0 \u0111\u1ebfn QD1 v\u00e0 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng cung trong n\u01b0\u1edbc s\u1ebd t\u0103ng t\u1eeb QS0 \u0111\u1ebfn QS1, \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi l\u01b0\u1ee3ng h\u00e0ng nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u s\u1ebd gi\u1ea3m xu\u1ed1ng t\u1eeb (QD0-QS0) \u0111\u1ebfn (QD1-QD0).

\u00d0\u1ec3 \u0111o l\u01b0\u1eddng \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf quan, ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng nh\u1eefng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m
v\u1ec1 th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t v\u00e0 th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng. Nh\u01b0 ta \u0111\u00e3 bi\u1ebft, kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng
l\u00e0 v\u00f9ng n\u1eb1m d\u01b0\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ea7u, tr\u00ean \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng gi\u00e1. N\u00f3 ph\u1ea3n \u1ea3nh th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf r\u1eb1ng, t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng

ng\u01b0\u1eddi mua s\u1ebd chi c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng kh\u00f4ng ch\u00fa \u00fd \u0111\u1ebfn c\u00e1i m\u00e0 h\u1ecd c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 s\u1eb5n l\u00f2ng chi. Cu\u1ed1i c\u00f9ng, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng s\u1ebd nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1ed9t th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 (xem \u0111\u1ed3 th\u1ecb 2). Khi gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng gia t\u0103ng th\u00ec th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 n\u00e0y c\u1ee7a ng\u01b0\u1eddi ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng s\u1ebd gi\u1ea3m xu\u1ed1ng v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ea1i.

\u00d0\u1ed3 th\u1ecb 2: Th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng v\u00e0 th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t

T\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1, kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t l\u00e0 v\u00f9ng n\u1eb1m tr\u00ean \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng cung, d\u01b0\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng gi\u00e1. B\u1edfi v\u00ec t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng nh\u00e0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t s\u1ebd nh\u1eadn c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng, n\u00ean th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 s\u1ebd x\u1ea3y ra cho t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 nh\u1eefng h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a c\u00f3 chi ph\u00ed s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t c\u1eadn bi\u00ean th\u1ea5p h\u01a1n gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 nh\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c.

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