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CHUONG~4

CHUONG~4

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Published by: api-3831256 on Oct 18, 2008
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05/09/2014

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CH\u01af\u01a0NG 4:
NH\u1eeeNG TI\u1ebeP C\u1eacN \u0110\u1ed0I V\u1edaI S\u1ef0 CAN THI\u1ec6P CH\u00cdNH S\u00c1CH TH\u01af\u01a0NG M\u1ea0I
C\u1ee6A NH\u1eeeNG NH\u00c0 B\u1ea2O H\u1ed8 M\u1eacU D\u1ecaCH M\u1edaI

I.Thu\u1ebf quan \u0111\u1ec3 l\u1ea5y l\u1ea1i \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i
II.Kinh t\u1ebf qui m\u00f4 trong m\u1ed9t khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5
III.Nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u, ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n v\u00e0 h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a b\u00e1n ra c\u1ee7a x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0
IV.Tr\u1ee3 c\u1ea5p xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u trong c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng c\u00f3 c\u1eb7p x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p

GI\u1edaI THI\u1ec6U

Trong nh\u1eefng n\u0103m g\u1ea7n \u0111\u00e2y,m\u1ed9t v\u00e0i l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft n\u00f3i v\u1ec1 t\u1ea1i sao m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ea1t
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ngu\u1ed3n l\u1ee3i t\u1eeb m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf quan ho\u1eb7c l\u00e0 c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i kh\u00e1c \u0111\u00e3 xu\u1ea5t
hi\u1ec7n. Ch\u00fang th\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 ch\u1ee7 ngh\u0129a b\u1ea3o h\u1ed9 m\u1eadu d\u1ecbch m\u1edbi ho\u1eb7c l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft
v\u1ec1 ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i chi\u1ebfn l\u01b0\u1ee3c . \u00d0\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m kh\u00e1c bi\u1ec7t c\u1ee7a s\u1ef1 ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn trong nh\u1eefng l\u00fd
thuy\u1ebft m\u1edbi n\u00e0y l\u00e0 c\u1ea1nh tranh kh\u00f4ng ho\u00e0n h\u1ea3o t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i trong nh\u1eefng ng\u00e0nh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xem x\u00e9t,
kh\u00e1c v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng ph\u00e2n t\u00edch c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 x\u00e9t \u0111\u1ebfn tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p c\u00e1c ng\u00e0nh n\u1eb1m
trong \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n c\u1ea1nh tranh ho\u00e0n h\u1ea3o. Nh\u1eefng c\u00e1ch ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn m\u1edbi cho r\u1eb1ng, c\u1ea1nh tranh
kh\u00f4ng ho\u00e0n h\u1ea3o m\u00f4 t\u1ea3 t\u1ed1t h\u01a1n v\u1ec1 th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi xung quanh ta. C\u1ea1nh tranh kh\u00f4ng ho\u00e0n h\u1ea3o
th\u01b0\u1eddng gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u nh\u1eefng y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 c\u1ee7a s\u1ef1 ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c l\u1eabn nhau \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u1eeba nh\u1eadn c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng

x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p trong b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 ng\u00e0nh n\u00e0o. Do v\u1eady, khi quy\u00eat \u0111\u1ecbnh nh\u1eefng h\u00e0nh \u0111\u1ed9ng t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a

h\u1ecd,th\u00ec nh\u1eedng x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p c\u1ed1 g\u1eafng \u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p kh\u00e1c.
Trong ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y, ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y nh\u1eefmg t\u00f3m t\u1eaft m\u1ed9t v\u00e0i l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft m\u1edbi \u0111\u1ec3 cung
c\u1ea5p n\u1ec1n t\u1ea3ng cho lo\u1ea1i nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u n\u00e0y.

Trong ph\u1ea7n \u0111\u1ea7u s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0a ra m\u1ed9t t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng mang t\u00ednh l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft, trong \u0111\u00f3 m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf quan c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 s\u1ebd d\u1eabn \u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ed9t s\u1ef1 chuy\u1ec3n giao m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn c\u1ee7a x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i \u0111\u1ebfn n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0. Trong ph\u1ea7n k\u1ebf ti\u1ebfp, ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd xem x\u00e9t - trong ng\u1eef c\u1ea3nh c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i - vi\u1ec7c b\u1ea3o h\u1ed9 m\u1eadu d\u1ecbch c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u1ea1o ra vi\u1ec7c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n kinh t\u1ebf qui m\u00f4 v\u00e0 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u l\u1edbn h\u01a1n cho x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ea3o h\u1ed9 nh\u01b0 th\u1ebf n\u00e0o. \u00d0i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n trong khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 c\u1ee7a hai x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p gi\u1ed1ng nhau, nh\u01b0ng m\u1ed9t x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p n\u1eb1m trong ng\u1eef c\u1ea3nh c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 l\u1ee3i c\u1ee7a vi\u1ec7c b\u1ea3o h\u1ed9 tr\u00ean l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u v\u00e0 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n. Ph\u1ea7n cu\u1ed1i s\u1ebd x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng m\u1ed9t tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng m\u1ed9t tr\u1ee3 c\u1ea5p xu\u1ea5t kh\u1ea9u. Lu\u00f4n gi\u1eef trong \u0111\u1ea7u r\u1eb1ng, trong khi nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u nh\u1eefng c\u00e1ch ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn kh\u00e1c nhau- c\u00e1i m\u00e0 r\u1ea5t kh\u00f3 \u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh xem vi\u1ec7c b\u1ea3o h\u1ed9 m\u1eadu d\u1ecbch trong b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 th\u00ed d\u1ee5 c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 n\u00e0o c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng \u0111\u1ec3 cu\u1ed1i c\u00f9ng mang l\u1ea1i ngu\u1ed3n l\u1ee3i cho n\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u01b0a ra s\u1ef1 b\u1ea3o h\u1ed9 hay kh\u00f4ng. Th\u00eam v\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3, gi\u1ed1ng nh\u01b0 h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft nh\u1eefng nh\u00e0 kinh t\u1ebf, ch\u00fang ta c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf trong xem x\u00e9t vi\u1ec7c s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng nh\u1eefng tranh lu\u1eadn n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c b\u1ea3o h\u1ed9 m\u1eadu d\u1ecbch nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t c\u01a1 s\u1edf cho ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i- nh\u1eefng h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf m\u00e0 ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd ch\u1ec9 ra t\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t v\u00e0i \u0111i\u1ec3m trong ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y.

N\u1ed8I DUNG CH\u00cdNH

Ph\u00e2n t\u00edch n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c kh\u1edfi x\u01b0\u1edbng b\u1edfi James Brander v\u00e0 Barbara Spencer (1981)
trong khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed1i m\u1eb7t v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t nh\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p d\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc
ngo\u00e0i. Gi\u1ea3 thuy\u1ebft h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ea1o ra l\u00e0 x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i l\u00e0 nh\u00e0 cung c\u1ea5p duy nh\u1ea5t
s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m n\u00e0y trong th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi v\u00e0 nh\u01b0 v\u1eady l\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t trong n\u01b0\u1edbc- n\u01b0\u1edbc
ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c ho\u00e0n to\u00e0n v\u00e0o x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m n\u00e0y.
\u00d0\u1ed3 th\u1ecb 1 d\u01b0\u1edbi \u0111\u00e2y s\u1ebd ch\u1ec9 ra b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a p\u00e2n t\u00edch.

\u00d0\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ea7u D bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n nhu c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m c\u1ee7a x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p
\u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i. B\u1edfi v\u00ec x\u00ec nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ed1i m\u1eb7t v\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ea7u c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ed9 d\u1ed1c \u0111i xu\u1ed1ng
(kh\u00f4ng gi\u1ed1ng v\u1edbi tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p c\u1ea1nh tranh ho\u00e0n h\u1ea3o - n\u01a1i x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ed1i m\u1eb7t v\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ea7u
n\u1eb1m ngang) n\u00ean thu nh\u1eadp c\u1eadn bi\u00ean s\u1ebd nh\u1ecf h\u01a1n gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3. Gi\u1ea3 s\u1eed \u0111\u1ec3 cho \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n h\u01a1n l\u00e0 chi
ph\u00ed c\u1eadn bi\u00ean kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ed5i (c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 m\u1ed7i \u0111\u01a1n v\u1ecb s\u1ea3n l\u01b0\u1ee3ng th\u00eam v\u00e0o \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ea1o ra s\u1ebd c\u00f3
c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t chi ph\u00ed nh\u01b0 nh\u1eefng \u0111\u01a1n v\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00f3 ) v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3 s\u1eed l\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng chi ph\u00ed c\u1ed1
\u0111\u1ecbnh v\u00e0 chi ph\u00ed v\u1eadn chuy\u1ec3n. \u00d0i\u1ec1u n\u1ea7y s\u1ebd d\u1eabn \u0111\u1ebfn \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng chi ph\u00ed c\u1eadn bi\u00ean ( MC ) s\u1ebd l\u00e0
\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng n\u1eb1m ngang b\u1eb1ng v\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng chi ph\u00ed b\u00ecnh qu\u00e2n ( AC ).

\u00d0\u1ed3 th\u1ecb 1: M\u1ed9t Thu\u1ebf Quan \u0111\u1ec3 l\u1ea5y l\u1ea1i l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u00f3c ngo\u00e0i.

Khi kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 thu\u1ebf quan c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0, x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u00f3c ngo\u00e0i s\u1ebd b\u00e1n l\u01b0\u1ee3ng OP1 cho th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 t\u1ea1i gi\u00e1 OP1, \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh b\u1edfi giao \u0111i\u1ec3m MR v\u00e0 MC . v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf quan x\u1ea3y ra, chi ph\u00ed b\u00e1n h\u00e0ng c\u1eadn bi\u00ean c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i trong th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 l\u00e0 MC+t , \u1edf \u0111\u00f3 t l\u00e0 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng thu\u1ebf quan tr\u00ean m\u1ed7i \u0111\u01a1n v\u1ecb h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a. L\u01b0\u1ee3ng h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a t\u1ed1i \u0111a h\u00f2a v\u1edbi l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn m\u1edbi b\u00e2y gi\u1edd l\u00e0 Oq2 ( MR=MC+t ). Nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng trong n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 b\u00e2y gi\u1edd chi v\u1edbi gi\u00e1 P1P2 SR. Tuy nhi\u00ean, n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 s\u1ebd \u0111\u1ea1t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u01b0\u1ee3ng thu nh\u1eadp thu\u1ebf quan b\u1eb1ng v\u1edbi di\u1ec7n t\u00edch t\u1ee9 gi\u00e1c C1 C2 GH - l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn kinh t\u1ebf tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i n\u00e0y.

I. Thu\u1ebf quan \u0111\u1ec3 l\u1ea5y l\u1ea1i \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i
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V\u1edbi th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i t\u1ef1 do, x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p s\u1ebd \u0111\u1eb7t MR= MC \u0111\u1ec3 t\u1ed1i \u0111a h\u00f3a l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn v\u00e0 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chuy\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ebfn n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 s\u1ebd l\u00e0 Oq1. Gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c mua s\u1ebd l\u00e0 Op1 v\u00e0 l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn (kinh t\u1ebf) c\u1ee7a x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p s\u1ebd b\u1eb1ng v\u1edbi di\u1ec7n t\u00edch c\u1ee7a t\u1ee9 gi\u00e1c c1p1RF. B\u1edfi v\u00ec x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n, n\u00ean kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 \u00e1p l\u1ef1c c\u1ea1nh tranh bu\u1ed9c gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 b\u1eb1ng v\u1edbi MC (ho\u1eb7cAC).

B\u00e2y gi\u1edd gi\u1ea3 s\u1eed r\u1eb1ng, n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 mu\u1ed1n \u0111\u1ea1t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i n\u00e0y, l\u00e0m nh\u01b0 th\u1ebf c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 t\u1ea1o ra m\u1ed9t s\u01b0 gia t\u0103ng trong ph\u00fac l\u1ee3i c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 t\u1eeb nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i. N\u1ebfu nh\u01b0 m\u1ed9t thu\u1ebf quan \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o-c\u00e1i ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chi tr\u00ean m\u1ed7i \u0111\u01a1n v\u1ecb h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a b\u1edfi x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i tr\u01b0\u1edbc khi n\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e9p b\u00e1n h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a trong n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 - l\u00fac \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng chi ph\u00ed c\u1eadn bi\u00ean s\u1ebd d\u1ecbch chuy\u1ec3n \u0111i l\u00ean theo h\u01b0\u1edbng th\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ee9ng t\u1edbi MC+t, \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y t l\u00e0 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng thu\u1ebf tr\u00ean m\u1ed7i \u0111\u01a1n v\u1ecb . \u00d0\u1ed1i v\u1edbi x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i, thu\u1ebf n\u00e0y \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t d\u1ea1ng chi ph\u00ed kh\u00e1c \u0111i c\u00f9ng v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c b\u00e1n m\u1ed7i \u0111\u01a1n v\u1ecb h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a trong n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0, do v\u1eady t\u1ed1i \u0111a h\u00f3a l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn b\u00e2y gi\u1edd c\u00e2n b\u1eb1ng thu nh\u1eadp c\u1eadn bi\u00ean v\u1edbi chi ph\u00ed c\u1eadn bi\u00ean m\u1edbi MC+t. L\u01b0\u1ee3ng h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 s\u1ebd gi\u1ea3m xu\u1ed1ng t\u1edbi Oq2 v\u00e0 gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c mua s\u1ebd l\u00e0 Op2.

\u00d0\u1ec3 xem x\u00e9t s\u1ef1 thay \u0111\u1ed5i ph\u00fac l\u1ee3i trong n\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u01b0a ra thu\u1ebf quan, ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd xem x\u00e9t l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn c\u1ee7a x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n. L\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn sau khi c\u00f3 thu\u1ebf quan l\u00e0 di\u1ec7n t\u00edch c2p2SG. C\u00f2n di\u1ec7n t\u00edch c1c2GH l\u00e0 g\u00ec? V\u00f9ng n\u00e0y th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec7n cho thu nh\u1eadp thu\u1ebf quan v\u00e0 n\u00f3 c\u0169ng bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n cho l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u00e2y c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n \u0111\u00e3 chuy\u1ec3n cho n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0. C\u00e1i \u0111\u1ea1t

\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u00e0y c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u00e1nh \u0111\u1ed5i v\u1edbi s\u1ef1 m\u1ea5t m\u00e1t trong th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng c\u1ee7a

nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng trong n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 v\u1edbi l\u01b0\u1ee3ng b\u1eb1ng v\u1edbi di\u1ec7n t\u00edch p1p2SR. Nh\u01b0ng n\u1ebfu di\u1ec7n t\u00edch c1c2GH l\u1edbn h\u01a1n di\u1ec7n t\u00edch p1p2SR, l\u00fac \u0111\u00f3 n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 \u0111\u00e3 th\u00e0nh c\u00f4ng trong vi\u1ec7c n\u00e2ng cao ph\u00fac l\u1ee3i c\u1ee7a n\u00f3 t\u1eeb c\u00e1i m\u1ea5t m\u00e1t c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i. R\u00f5 r\u00e0ng, s\u1ef1 can thi\u1ec7p n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 \u0111\u00e1ng mong m\u00f5i \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0.

Trong khi m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn kinh t\u1ebf \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chuy\u1ec3n cho n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0, th\u00ec nh\u00e0 kinh t\u1ebf kh\u00f4ng nh\u1ea5t thi\u1ebft k\u1ebft lu\u1eadn r\u1eb1ng ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng b\u1ea3o h\u1ed9 m\u1eadu d\u1ecbch \u0111\u00e3 mang l\u1ea1i l\u1ee3i \u00edch , th\u1eadm ch\u00ed n\u1ebfu nh\u01b0 s\u1ef1 chuy\u1ec3n giao l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn nhi\u1ec1u h\u01a1n l\u00e0 s\u01b0 m\u1ea5t m\u00e1t trong th\u1eb7ng d\u01b0 ti\u00eau d\u00f9ng. B\u1edfi do c\u00f3 thu\u1ebf quan n\u00ean hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 v\u00e0 ph\u00fac l\u1ee3i c\u1ee7a th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi \u0111\u00e3 gi\u1ea3m b\u1edfi v\u00ec trong m\u1ed9t t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n, th\u00ec hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 v\u00e0 ph\u00fac l\u1ee3i s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u00e2ng cao n\u1ebfu nh\u01b0 nh\u1eefng h\u00e0nh \u0111\u1ed9ng khi\u1ebfn cho nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n gi\u1ea3m gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 v\u00e0 t\u0103ng s\u1ea3n l\u01b0\u1ee3ng. \u1ede \u0111\u00e2y \u0111i\u1ec1u ng\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ea1i \u0111\u00e3 x\u1ea3y ra v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o thu\u1ebf quan \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9c quy\u1ec1n! Do v\u1eady, m\u1ed9t s\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ea1t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c v\u1ec1 ph\u00fac l\u1ee3i c\u00faa n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 x\u1ea3y ra trong khi th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 s\u1ebd b\u1ecb m\u1ea5t m\u00e1t (m\u1ed9t t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng l\u00e0m ngh\u00e8o ng\u01b0\u1eddi h\u00e0ng x\u00f3m). M\u1ed9t ph\u00e2n t\u00edch \u0111\u1ea7y \u0111\u1ee7 c\u1ee7a vi\u1ec7c n\u00ean th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng n\u00e0y hay kh\u00f4ng c\u0169ng \u0111\u00f2i h\u1ecfi xem x\u00e9t nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 nh\u01b0 tri\u1ec5n v\u1ecdng v\u1ec1 s\u1ef1 tr\u1ea3 \u0111\u0169a c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc ngo\u00e0i \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng h\u00e0ng h\u00f3a \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u1eadp kh\u1ea9u t\u1eeb n\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u1ee7 nh\u00e0.

M\u1ed9t s\u1ef1 \u0111\u00f3ng g\u00f3p kh\u00e1c v\u00e0o l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u1ee7ng h\u1ed9 ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 m\u1eadu d\u1ecbch m\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u01b0a ra t\u1eeb nh\u00e0 kinh t\u1ebf Paul Kougman (1984). - trong m\u00f4 h\u00ednh c\u1ee7a \u00f4ng, Kougman gi\u1ea3 s\u1eed r\u1eb1ng c\u00f3 2 x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p trong m\u1ed9t ng\u00e0nh, m\u1ed9t c\u1eb7p x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p - m\u1ed9t x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p

II - Kinh t\u1ebf qui m\u00f4 trong m\u1ed9t khu\u00f4n Kh\u1ed5 m\u1ed9t c\u1eb7p x\u00ed nghi\u1ec7p
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