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The Phasance Concept

The Phasance Concept

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Published by JJacquelin
The unified concept of Phasance includes Inductance, Resistance and Capacitance as boundary cases, allowing a more general mathematical treatment for the computation of equivalent electrical networks (for example, in order to describe the frequency response of ionic conductors, non-Dedye dielectrics, etc.). The theoretical approach confirms that some well defined shapes of impedance, admittance or permittance diagrams, commonly observed by impedance spectroscopy, are not characteristic of a single particular phenomena.
The unified concept of Phasance includes Inductance, Resistance and Capacitance as boundary cases, allowing a more general mathematical treatment for the computation of equivalent electrical networks (for example, in order to describe the frequency response of ionic conductors, non-Dedye dielectrics, etc.). The theoretical approach confirms that some well defined shapes of impedance, admittance or permittance diagrams, commonly observed by impedance spectroscopy, are not characteristic of a single particular phenomena.

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Published by: JJacquelin on Nov 07, 2011
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 1
The Phasance Concept
Jean Jacquelin
 
 2"
The Phasance concept : a review
" (here, pp. 2-13) was published in
Current Topics in Electrochemistry
, Vol.4, (1997), Edit.: Research Trends, 695 012 India.
 
This paper is intended for specialists in various fields of electrotechnics (for exampleelectrochemistry), using impedance analysis for materials characterization (ionic conductors,dielectrics, etc.)
ABSTRACT :
The
Phasance concept 
is introduced using either a practical or a theoretical approach.
 
The potential difference, function of time, V(t), causing a current, I(t), to flow in a circuit element, canbe expressed in terms of the fractional derivative of the current, thanks to the Rieman~LiouviIIetransform: V=P
ϕ
.d
 ν
I/dt
 ν
, where P
ϕ
is the
Phasance
and
 ν
is the degree of fractional derivation.
 
In the sinusoidal case, the relationship between the impedance (Z) and the
Phasance
isZ = P
ϕ
(i
ω
)
 ν
, where
 ν
is related to the phase angle displacement (
ϕ
). A basic element, so-called
Phasor 
(P
ϕ
,
 ν
=2
ϕ
 / 
π
), is described in the case of constant P
ϕ
and
 ν
. The key characteristic of thiselement is a constant energy efficiency. The consideration of Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance asboundary cases of 
Phasance
, leads to a more general approach in mathematical treatments.Theoretical and practical examples are presented, which result from a review of information, notions,and ideas derived from the literature.The unified concept of 
Phasance
is especially useful in Electrochemistry. Thanks to this theoreticalbasis, one can understand why some kinds of complex impedance behaviours are so common and arelikely to be caused by many different phenomena. This is also the starting point for the derivation of anumber of models and equivalent circuits
."
 A number of models for CPA of conductors and for relaxation in non-Debye dielectrics
"(here, pp.14-18) is more specifically addressed to specialists in the field of dielectrics. It waspublished in the
 Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids
,131-133, (1991) 1080-1083, Edit.Elsevier.Science Publishers (North-Holland).
ABSTRACT:
The impedance, admittance, or permittance diagrams of materials, when presented inthe complex plane, are often well defined straight lines, or well defined semi-circles with axesdepressed below the real axis. Using a general theoretical approach, it is suggested that this behaviouris not characteristic of a single particular phenomenon or theory (hence, not characteristic of fractalgeometry for example). The potential difference,
(
), causing a current,
 I 
(
), to flow in any type of electrical circuit, can be expressed in terms of the 'fractional derivative' of the current:
=
P
d
ν 
 I
d
ν 
 where
P
('phasance', magnitude) and
ν 
(degree of fractional derivation) depend on the physicalproperties. A particular case corresponds to constant
P
and
ν 
, to a constant energy efficiency, to astraight line on the complex impedance diagram and to the 'constant phase angle' (CPA) behaviour. Asan example, the direct application of the mathematical theory leads to several simple and exactdistribution functions of relaxation times and a number of models for non-Debye dielectrics.
 
"
 Impedance analysis and modelization of the alternating current properties of ionic conductors
" (here, pp.19-32) should interest scientists dealing with ionic conductors,especially in electrochemistry. This paper, written in 1984, was not published.
ABSTRACT:
The common inclined semi-circular complex impedance diagrams of ionic conductorscan be generated by various distribution laws of the physical properties. Four different examples of models are given, suggesting some kinds of physical phenomena likely to cause this behaviour.Adequate structures of networks can be found to modelize them accurately.
The three papers were aimed at specialists while the more general paper "
 La dérivation fractionnaire
" (not translated as of yet) is intended to general public, published in themagazine
Quadrature
Vol.40, (2000) 10-12, Edit. EDP Sciences (France) and now availableon :http://www.scribd.com/JJacquelin/documents All these papers are in close relationship. They are derived from studies made around 1980reported in a technical document :
"Use of Fractional Derivatives to express the Propertiesof Energy Storage Phenomena in Electrical Networks
", (1982, re-print 1984, now out of print). Edit.: Laboratoires de Marcoussis, Route de Nozay, 91460, Marcoussis, France.
 
 3
The Phasance concept: a review
 
Jean Jacquelin
Alcatel Alsthom Recherche. Route de Nozay. 91460. Marcoussis, France
ABSTRACT
The
Phasance concept 
is introduced using either a practical or a theoretical approach.The potential difference, function of time, V(t), causing a current, I(t), to flow in a circuitelement, can be expressed in terms of the fractional derivative of the current, thanks to theRieman~LiouviIIe transform: V=P
ϕ
.d
 ν
I/dt
 ν
, where P
ϕ
is the
Phasance
and
 ν
is the degree of fractional derivation.In the sinusoidal case, the relationship between the impedance (Z) and the
Phasance
isZ = P
ϕ
(i
ω
)
 ν
, where
 ν
is related to the phase angle displacement (
ϕ
). A basic element, so-called
Phasor 
(P
ϕ
,
 ν
=2
ϕ
 / 
π
), is described in the case of constant P
ϕ
and
 ν
. The keycharacteristic of this element is a constant energy efficiency. The consideration of Resistance,Capacitance, Inductance as boundary cases of 
Phasance
, leads to a more general approach inmathematical treatments.Theoretical and practical examples are presented, which result from a review of information, notions, and ideas derived from the literature.The unified concept of 
Phasance
is especially useful in Electrochemistry. Thanks tothis theoretical basis, one can understand why some kinds of complex impedance behavioursare so common and are likely to be caused by many different phenomena. This is also thestarting point for the derivation of a number of models and equivalent circuits.
1. INTRODUCTION
 The aim of this paper is to make a synthesis of several already known physical andmathematical points. A major consideration is to give a comprehensible overview on notions,ideas and material taken in the literature from various fields: mathematics, physics,electrochemistry, dielectric science, etc..In many areas of electrical engineering, it is common to study the materials properties,components, networks or electrical systems as a function of frequency. Specialized andsophisticated measurement devices are available, e.g. network analysers or impedanceanalysers. Electrochemists speak of impedance spectroscopy.One sample system is submitted to a stimulating electrical signal. The response signalis compared to the emitted signal, with the aim of deriving an experimental knowledge of thephenomena inside the studied object. One of the most simple cases is the measurement of thecomplex impedance, Z=Z'+iZ", at various input frequencies f or
ω
=2
π
f.The corresponding experimental results, such as complex impedance tables anddiagrams, are displayed with various systems of axes and scales. One of the most commonrepresentation is in the complex plane, where the real part is on the x-axis and the imaginarypart is on the y-axis, with f or
ω
as a parameter. Then, it has been observed that the diagramsare often well defined arcs of circles [1-2].Many authors introduce a term (i
ω
)
 ν
, where (i) is the imaginary unit and (
 ν
) is aconstant, to express experimental results [1-2], in the formulas of impedance, Z(
ω
), oradmittance, Y(
ω
)=1/Z, or complex capacitance C(
ω
)=l/(i
ω
Z), etc.

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