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közgazdaságtan [E] > Kozgazjegyzet

közgazdaságtan [E] > Kozgazjegyzet

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Published by: api-3828155 on Oct 18, 2008
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TARTALOMJEGYZ\u00c9K
TARTALOMJEGYZ\u00c9K........................................................................................................................................ 1
ELS\u0150 R\u00c9SZ: BEVEZET\u00c9S...................................................................................................................................5
ELS\u0150 R\u00c9SZ: BEVEZET\u00c9S...................................................................................................................................5
I.F EJE ZET: A GAZDAS\u00c1GTAN ALAPFOGALMAI..................................................................................................................5
I.F EJE ZET: A GAZDAS\u00c1GTAN ALAPFOGALMAI..................................................................................................................5
1. Gazd\u00e1lkod\u00e1s, gazdas\u00e1g.................................................................................................................................5
1. Gazd\u00e1lkod\u00e1s, gazdas\u00e1g.................................................................................................................................5

1.1. A gazd\u00e1lkod\u00e1s fogalma...........................................................................................................................5 1.2. Sz\u00fcks\u00e9gletek \u00e9s javak.............................................................................................................................6 1.3. Termel\u00e9s, termel\u00e9si t\u00e9nyez\u0151k.................................................................................................................7 1.4. A gazd\u00e1lkod\u00e1s \u2013 v\u00e1laszt\u00e1s.................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1.5. A termel\u00e9si lehet\u0151s\u00e9gek hat\u00e1ra...............................................................................................................8

2. A gazdas\u00e1gtan alapk\u00e9rd\u00e9sei........................................................................................................................10 2. A gazdas\u00e1gtan alapk\u00e9rd\u00e9sei........................................................................................................................10 3. A gazdas\u00e1g alapegys\u00e9gei............................................................................................................................10 3. A gazdas\u00e1g alapegys\u00e9gei............................................................................................................................10

3.1. A h\u00e1ztart\u00e1s............................................................................................................................................11 3.2. \u00dczleti szervezet (v\u00e1llalat).....................................................................................................................11 3.3. Az \u00e1llam (korm\u00e1nyzat).........................................................................................................................12

4. A gazdas\u00e1gi tev\u00e9kenys\u00e9gek \u00f6sszehangol\u00e1sa, a gazdas\u00e1gi koordin\u00e1ci\u00f3......................................................12
4. A gazdas\u00e1gi tev\u00e9kenys\u00e9gek \u00f6sszehangol\u00e1sa, a gazdas\u00e1gi koordin\u00e1ci\u00f3......................................................12
4.1. Specializ\u00e1ci\u00f3 \u00e9s munkamegoszt\u00e1s........................................................................................................12

4.2. A gazdas\u00e1gi koordin\u00e1ci\u00f3 alapt\u00edpusai....................................................................................................13 II.F EJE ZET: PIACGAZDAS\u00c1GI ALAPFOGALMAK...............................................................................................................15 II.F EJE ZET: PIACGAZDAS\u00c1GI ALAPFOGALMAK...............................................................................................................15

1. A piac \u00e9s a piaci szerepl\u0151k..........................................................................................................................15
1. A piac \u00e9s a piaci szerepl\u0151k..........................................................................................................................15
1.1. A piac elemei........................................................................................................................................15
1.2. Piaci szerepl\u0151k......................................................................................................................................15

2. A kereslet \u00e9s a k\u00edn\u00e1lat f\u00fcggv\u00e9nyszer\u0171 \u00e1br\u00e1zol\u00e1sa.......................................................................................17 2. A kereslet \u00e9s a k\u00edn\u00e1lat f\u00fcggv\u00e9nyszer\u0171 \u00e1br\u00e1zol\u00e1sa.......................................................................................17 3. A Marshall-kereszt......................................................................................................................................18 3. A Marshall-kereszt......................................................................................................................................18 4. Az \u00e1rak gazdas\u00e1gi szerepe..........................................................................................................................19 4. Az \u00e1rak gazdas\u00e1gi szerepe..........................................................................................................................19

AZ \u00c1R LEGFONTOSABB GAZDAS\u00c1GI FUNKCI\u00d3I A K\u00d6VETKEZ\u0150K......................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5. A piaci verseny jellege, piaci form\u00e1k..........................................................................................................20
5. A piaci verseny jellege, piaci form\u00e1k..........................................................................................................20
5.1. A t\u00f6k\u00e9letes versenypiac jellemz\u0151i........................................................................................................20
5.2. A monopolpiac jellemz\u0151i......................................................................................................................21
6. Alapvet\u0151 piacok...........................................................................................................................................22
6. Alapvet\u0151 piacok...........................................................................................................................................22
M\u00c1SODIK R\u00c9SZ: MIKROGAZDAS\u00c1GI ISMERETEK................................................................................23
M\u00c1SODIK R\u00c9SZ: MIKROGAZDAS\u00c1GI ISMERETEK................................................................................23
III.FEJEZET: A TERM\u00c9KPIAC KERESLETI OLDALA; A FOGYASZT\u00d3I MAGATART\u00c1S ELEMZ\u00c9SE.....................................................23
III.FEJEZET: A TERM\u00c9KPIAC KERESLETI OLDALA; A FOGYASZT\u00d3I MAGATART\u00c1S ELEMZ\u00c9SE.....................................................23

1. A term\u00e9kpiac szerepl\u0151i \u00e9s jelens\u00e9gei...........................................................................................................23 1. A term\u00e9kpiac szerepl\u0151i \u00e9s jelens\u00e9gei...........................................................................................................23 2. Fogyaszt\u00f3i magatart\u00e1s \u00e9s kereslet..............................................................................................................25 2. Fogyaszt\u00f3i magatart\u00e1s \u00e9s kereslet..............................................................................................................25

2.1. A hasznoss\u00e1g elm\u00e9lete..........................................................................................................................25 2.2. A hasznoss\u00e1g m\u00e9rhet\u0151s\u00e9ge...................................................................................................................26 2.3. A fogyaszt\u00f3i d\u00f6nt\u00e9s optimaliz\u00e1l\u00e1sa......................................................................................................27

2.4. K\u00f6z\u00f6mb\u00f6ss\u00e9gi g\u00f6rbe \u00e9s k\u00f6lts\u00e9gvet\u00e9si egyenes....................................................................................28
2.5. A j\u00f6vedelem \u00e9s az \u00e1r hat\u00e1sa a keresletre..............................................................................................32
3. A piaci kereslet rugalmass\u00e1ga....................................................................................................................33
3. A piaci kereslet rugalmass\u00e1ga....................................................................................................................33

Negat\u00edv a kereslet kereszt-\u00e1rrugalmass\u00e1ga az olyan term\u00e9kek eset\u00e9ben, amelyek a fogyaszt\u00e1sban egym\u00e1st
kieg\u00e9sz\u00edtik. Ha p\u00e9l d\u00e1ul n\u0151 a benzin \u00e1ra, cs\u00f6kken a szem\u00e9lyg\u00e9p kocsik kereslete, ha n\u0151 a h\u00e1ztart\u00e1si f\u0171t\u0151olaj
\u00e1ra, cs\u00f6kken az olajk\u00e1lyh\u00e1k ir\u00e1nti kereslet..................................................................................................... 35
Nulla a kereslet kereszt-\u00e1rrugalmass\u00e1ga a fogyaszt\u00e1sban egym\u00e1st\u00f3l f\u00fcggetlen term\u00e9kek eset\u00e9ben.............. 35

IV.F EJE ZET: A TERM\u00c9KPIAC K\u00cdN\u00c1LATI OLDALA.............................................................................................................36
IV.F EJE ZET: A TERM\u00c9KPIAC K\u00cdN\u00c1LATI OLDALA.............................................................................................................36
1. \u00dczleti szervezet \u2013 \u00fczleti v\u00e1llalkoz\u00e1s - v\u00e1llalat............................................................................................36
1. \u00dczleti szervezet \u2013 \u00fczleti v\u00e1llalkoz\u00e1s - v\u00e1llalat............................................................................................36
1.1. V\u00e1llalati c\u00e9lok.......................................................................................................................................37
2. A v\u00e1llalati gazd\u00e1lkod\u00e1s alapfogalmai.........................................................................................................38
2. A v\u00e1llalati gazd\u00e1lkod\u00e1s alapfogalmai.........................................................................................................38
2.1. A v\u00e1llalat k\u00f6lts\u00e9gei...............................................................................................................................38
2.2. Bev\u00e9tel \u00e9s profit...................................................................................................................................39
3. A termel\u00e9s mikro\u00f6kon\u00f3mi\u00e1ja................................................................................................................... . . .40
3. A termel\u00e9s mikro\u00f6kon\u00f3mi\u00e1ja................................................................................................................... . . .40

3.1. Id\u0151t\u00e1vok a mikro\u00f6kn\u00f3mi\u00e1ban...............................................................................................................40 3.2. A r\u00f6vid t\u00e1v\u00fa termel\u00e9si f\u00fcggv\u00e9ny..........................................................................................................42 3.3. R\u00f6vid t\u00e1v\u00fa k\u00f6lts\u00e9gf\u00fcggv\u00e9nyek.............................................................................................................44

4. A k\u00edn\u00e1lat meghat\u00e1roz\u00f3d\u00e1sa r\u00f6vid t\u00e1von.....................................................................................................46
4. A k\u00edn\u00e1lat meghat\u00e1roz\u00f3d\u00e1sa r\u00f6vid t\u00e1von.....................................................................................................46
4.1. A kompetit\u00edv v\u00e1llalat k\u00edn\u00e1lat\u00e1nak alakul\u00e1sa.........................................................................................47

4.2. A monopolv\u00e1llalat k\u00edn\u00e1lata...................................................................................................................48 V.F EJE ZET: A TERMEL\u00c9SI T\u00c9NYEZ\u0150K PIACA..................................................................................................................51 V.F EJE ZET: A TERMEL\u00c9SI T\u00c9NYEZ\u0150K PIACA..................................................................................................................51

1. A termel\u00e9si t\u00e9nyez\u0151k csoportos\u00edt\u00e1sa...........................................................................................................51 1. A termel\u00e9si t\u00e9nyez\u0151k csoportos\u00edt\u00e1sa...........................................................................................................51 2. Az er\u0151forr\u00e1sok kereslet\u00e9nek \u00e9s k\u00edn\u00e1lat\u00e1nak f\u0151bb \u00f6sszef\u00fcgg\u00e9sei.................................................................52 2. Az er\u0151forr\u00e1sok kereslet\u00e9nek \u00e9s k\u00edn\u00e1lat\u00e1nak f\u0151bb \u00f6sszef\u00fcgg\u00e9sei.................................................................52

2.1. A termel\u00e9si t\u00e9nyez\u0151k kereslete.............................................................................................................52
2.2. A termel\u00e9si t\u00e9nyez\u0151k k\u00edn\u00e1lata...............................................................................................................53
3. Munkapiac...................................................................................................................................................53
3. Munkapiac...................................................................................................................................................53

3.1. A munkak\u00edn\u00e1lat.....................................................................................................................................54 3.2. A munkakereslet...................................................................................................................................55 3.3. A b\u00e9rek alakul\u00e1sa..................................................................................................................................55

4. A t\u0151kepiac....................................................................................................................................................56
4. A t\u0151kepiac....................................................................................................................................................56
4.1. P\u00e9nz- \u00e9s \u00e9rt\u00e9kpap\u00edrpiac.........................................................................................................................57
4.2. Kamat, kamatl\u00e1b...................................................................................................................................57
5. T\u0151kebefektet\u00e9sek \u00e9rt\u00e9kel\u00e9se - vagyon\u00e9rt\u00e9kel\u00e9s...........................................................................................58
5. T\u0151kebefektet\u00e9sek \u00e9rt\u00e9kel\u00e9se - vagyon\u00e9rt\u00e9kel\u00e9s...........................................................................................58
5.1. Az id\u0151 szerepe, j\u00f6v\u0151\u00e9rt\u00e9k, jelen\u00e9rt\u00e9k...................................................................................................59
AHOL: T = AZ \u00c9VEK SZ\u00c1MA,.........................................................................................................................59
5.2. Vagyon\u00e9rt\u00e9kel\u00e9s....................................................................................................................................60
6. A f\u00f6ldj\u00e1rad\u00e9k...............................................................................................................................................61
6. A f\u00f6ldj\u00e1rad\u00e9k...............................................................................................................................................61
6.1. A f\u00f6ld \u00e1ra..............................................................................................................................................61
7. A v\u00e1llalkoz\u00f3 mint termel\u00e9si t\u00e9nyez\u0151............................................................................................................62
7. A v\u00e1llalkoz\u00f3 mint termel\u00e9si t\u00e9nyez\u0151............................................................................................................62
7.1. A v\u00e1llalkoz\u00f3i szolg\u00e1ltat\u00e1s d\u00edja..............................................................................................................62
8. A j\u00f6vedelmek eloszt\u00e1sa................................................................................................................................62
8. A j\u00f6vedelmek eloszt\u00e1sa................................................................................................................................62
VI.F EJE ZET: K\u00d6Z\u00c9RDEK \u00c9S PIAC; PIACI KUDARCOK......................................................................................................64
VI.F EJE ZET: K\u00d6Z\u00c9RDEK \u00c9S PIAC; PIACI KUDARCOK......................................................................................................64
1. A tev\u00e9kenys\u00e9gek egy\u00e9ni \u00e9s t\u00e1rsadalmi meg\u00edt\u00e9l\u00e9s\u00e9nek k\u00fcl\u00f6nb\u00f6z\u0151s\u00e9ge........................................................64
1. A tev\u00e9kenys\u00e9gek egy\u00e9ni \u00e9s t\u00e1rsadalmi meg\u00edt\u00e9l\u00e9s\u00e9nek k\u00fcl\u00f6nb\u00f6z\u0151s\u00e9ge........................................................64
1.1. Az egy\u00e9ni d\u00f6nt\u00e9shoz\u00f3k \u00edt\u00e9letein alapul\u00f3 haszonelv\u0171 piac m\u0171k\u00f6d\u00e9se..................................................64
1.2. Az egy\u00e9ni \u00e9s a t\u00e1rsadalmi meg\u00edt\u00e9l\u00e9s k\u00fcl\u00f6nbs\u00e9ge.................................................................................65
2. A k\u00f6zjavak...................................................................................................................................................66
2. A k\u00f6zjavak...................................................................................................................................................66
2.1. Tiszta mag\u00e1njavak, tiszta k\u00f6zjavak \u00e9s \u00e1tmeneti megold\u00e1sok...............................................................66
2.2. A k\u00f6zjavak kereslete \u00e9s k\u00edn\u00e1lata...........................................................................................................67
3. Az extern\u00e1lis hat\u00e1sok..................................................................................................................................68
3. Az extern\u00e1lis hat\u00e1sok..................................................................................................................................68

3.1. Az extern\u00e1li\u00e1k fogalma, csopoortos\u00edt\u00e1suk............................................................................................68 3.2. Az extern\u00e1lis hat\u00e1sok internaliz\u00e1l\u00e1s\u00e1nak lehet\u0151s\u00e9gei...........................................................................69 3.3. Az extern\u00e1lis hat\u00e1sok min\u0151s\u00edtett esete: a k\u00f6rnyezetszennyez\u00e9s...........................................................70

HARMADIK R\u00c9SZ: MAKROGAZDAS\u00c1GI ISMERETEK...........................................................................71
HARMADIK R\u00c9SZ: MAKROGAZDAS\u00c1GI ISMERETEK...........................................................................71
VII.FEJEZET: MAKROGAZDAS\u00c1GI ALAP\u00d6SSZEF\u00dcGG\u00c9SEK.................................................................................................71
VII.FEJEZET: MAKROGAZDAS\u00c1GI ALAP\u00d6SSZEF\u00dcGG\u00c9SEK.................................................................................................71

1. A makro\u00f6kon\u00f3mia t\u00e1rgya............................................................................................................................71 1. A makro\u00f6kon\u00f3mia t\u00e1rgya............................................................................................................................71 2. Alapfogalmak \u00e9s \u00f6sszef\u00fcgg\u00e9sek..................................................................................................................72 2. Alapfogalmak \u00e9s \u00f6sszef\u00fcgg\u00e9sek..................................................................................................................72

2.1. Alapfogalmak.......................................................................................................................................72 2.2. Aggreg\u00e1lt k\u00edn\u00e1lat \u00e9s aggreg\u00e1lt kereslet.................................................................................................74 2.3. Gazdas\u00e1gi szf\u00e9r\u00e1k.................................................................................................................................74 2.4. A k\u00e9tszerepl\u0151s makrogazdas\u00e1gi k\u00f6rforg\u00e1s...........................................................................................75

3. A makrogazdas\u00e1gi tev\u00e9kenys\u00e9gek sz\u00e1mbav\u00e9tele.........................................................................................76
3. A makrogazdas\u00e1gi tev\u00e9kenys\u00e9gek sz\u00e1mbav\u00e9tele.........................................................................................76
3.1. Az SNA rendszer mutat\u00f3i.....................................................................................................................76

3.2. A nemzeti kibocs\u00e1t\u00e1s \u00e9s a nett\u00f3 gazdas\u00e1gi j\u00f3l\u00e9t (NEW)......................................................................79 VIII.F EJE ZET: P\u00c9NZ \u2013 P\u00c9NZ\u00dcGYI SZF\u00c9RA -IN F L\u00c1 C I\u00d3....................................................................................................81 VIII.F EJE ZET: P\u00c9NZ \u2013 P\u00c9NZ\u00dcGYI SZF\u00c9RA -IN F L\u00c1 C I\u00d3....................................................................................................81

1. A p\u00e9nz\u00fcgyi rendszer m\u0171k\u00f6d\u00e9se....................................................................................................................81
1. A p\u00e9nz\u00fcgyi rendszer m\u0171k\u00f6d\u00e9se....................................................................................................................81

1.1. A p\u00e9nz...................................................................................................................................................81 1.2. A p\u00e9nz funkci\u00f3i.....................................................................................................................................81 1.3. A modern p\u00e9nz \u2013 hitelp\u00e9nz...................................................................................................................82 1.4. A p\u00e9nz\u00fcgyi szf\u00e9ra r\u00e9szter\u00fcletei.............................................................................................................82 1.5. A p\u00e9nzteremt\u00e9s \u2013 hitelny\u00fajt\u00e1s...............................................................................................................84

2. Az infl\u00e1ci\u00f3...................................................................................................................................................85
2. Az infl\u00e1ci\u00f3...................................................................................................................................................85

2.1. Az infl\u00e1ci\u00f3 fogalma..............................................................................................................................86
2.2. Az infl\u00e1ci\u00f3 fajt\u00e1i...................................................................................................................................86
2.4. Az infl\u00e1ci\u00f3 mot\u00edvumai..........................................................................................................................87
2.5. Az infl\u00e1ci\u00f3 megf\u00e9kez\u00e9s\u00e9nek eszk\u00f6zei..................................................................................................88
IX.F EJE ZET: MUNKAPIAC \u2013MUNKAN \u00c9 LK\u00dc LIS\u00c9 G..........................................................................................................90
IX.F EJE ZET: MUNKAPIAC \u2013MUNKAN \u00c9 LK\u00dc LIS\u00c9 G..........................................................................................................90

1. A makroszint\u0171 munkapiac...........................................................................................................................90
1. A makroszint\u0171 munkapiac...........................................................................................................................90

1.1. A munka kereslete................................................................................................................................90 1.2. A munka k\u00edn\u00e1lata..................................................................................................................................91 1.3. A munkapiaci egyens\u00faly.......................................................................................................................92

2. A munkan\u00e9lk\u00fclis\u00e9g......................................................................................................................................93
2. A munkan\u00e9lk\u00fclis\u00e9g......................................................................................................................................93
2.1. A munkan\u00e9lk\u00fclis\u00e9g fogalma, m\u00e9r\u00e9se....................................................................................................94
2.2. A munkan\u00e9lk\u00fclis\u00e9g t\u00edpusa.....................................................................................................................94
3. A munkan\u00e9lk\u00fclis\u00e9g \u00e9s az infl\u00e1ci\u00f3................................................................................................................95
3. A munkan\u00e9lk\u00fclis\u00e9g \u00e9s az infl\u00e1ci\u00f3................................................................................................................95
3.1. A munkan\u00e9lk\u00fclis\u00e9g term\u00e9szetes r\u00e1t\u00e1ja..................................................................................................95
3.2. A Phillips-g\u00f6rbe....................................................................................................................................95

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