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Noam Lior_Water Desalination

Noam Lior_Water Desalination

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Water desalination:status, technology,challenges,and potential
Noam Lior
Life Fellow ASME, Assoc. Fellow AIAA
Advances in Water Desalination
Board of Editors Member:Desalination
, The International Journal of Desalting and Water Purification,
Desalination and Water Treatment
Science and Engineering .
The International Desalination & Water Reuse Quarterly
, 1997-2003. 
Scientific Committee,
International Centre for Sustainable Developmentof Energy, Water and Environment Systems
Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Applied MechanicsUniversity of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia, PA 19104, USAlior@seas.upenn.edu http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~lior/ 
The water problem andNew Water
Rising population, standards of living and water pollutionare diminishing the amounts of naturally available freshwater of good quality while the demand is increasingrelentlessly
"Manufactured water" or is making aconsiderable contribution to the world's potable, industrial,and agricultural water supply.
technology is improving in cost-performanceand reliability
 Desalination processes remain energy intensive and arepolluting, needing strong and rapid development
is increasingly recognized that desalination must beperformedsustainably
2Noam Lior
The major desalination methods
Distillation (2/3 of market)
multistage flash (MSF; heat)
multi-effect (ME; heat)
vapor compression (VC; mechanical power)
Membrane distillation (MD; temperature (heat), under development)
Membrane Separation (1/3 of market)
Reverse Osmosis (RO, pressure)
Electrodialysis (ED, electrical potential)
Membrane distillation (MD, temperature (heat), under development)
Forward osmosis (FO, under development)
Ion exchange (IE, adsorption, for low salinity waters;mechanical power)
Freezing (mechanical power and cooling)
3Noam Lior

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