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Experiment No 2 CE

# Experiment No 2 CE

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11/08/2011

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CE Transistor CharacteristicsExperiment No: 2Date:
Objective:
Graphical measurement of h-parameters of the given transistor in CE configuration
Equipment:
‘CE Transistor Characteristics’ board, dual power supply, connection wires, and digitalmultimeters
Theory:
Transistor Model :A Bipolar transistor as a two port device is represented with two voltages and currents. Out of which input voltage and the output current are treated as dependent variables, with respect to theinput current and the output voltage as independent variables. Thus the parameters which relatethese variables do not have same units, and are called Hybrid Parameters (h-parameters). Atransistor is represented with an h-parameter model defined by the two functional relationshipequations.V
1
= hi I
1
+ hr V
2
---------- (1)I
2
= hf I
1
+ ho V
2
---------- (2)
Transistor Characteristics:Transistor characteristics are the curves, which represent relationship between different DCcurrents and voltages of a transistor. The two types of characteristics of a transistor are:
1.
Input characteristic, relating the variables of equation (1)
2.
Output characteristic, relating the variables of equation (2)The transistor is biased in the active region for plotting these two sets of the curves (graphs). Theindividual H-parameters in given configuration can be calculated from the transistors input andoutput characteristic curves
Common-Emitter Configuration:In common base configuration, input characteristic curves are plotted between the input current I
E
versus input voltage V
BE
for various constant values of output voltage V
CE
. With the input junction forward biased, I
B
increases in a manner that closely resembles a forward biased diode asV
BE
increases; for a fixed value of V
CE
. The reverse bias at the output junction affects the curvesdue to the ‘early effect’.The output characteristic curves are plotted between the output current I
c
versus output voltageV
CE
for various constant values of input current I
B
. The output characteristic has three basicregions of interest; the active region, cutoff region and saturation region. The curves plotted willshow the active region of the transistor due to the biasing voltages used in this case. Since the terminal voltages and currents are different for different transistor configurations, H- parameters are also different. For CE configuration these are defined by,V
b
= hie I
b
+ hre V
c
---------- (a)I
c
= hfe I
b
+ hoe V
c
---------- (b)
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CE Transistor Characteristics
Circuit Diagram:
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