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Table Of Contents

SYSTEM, BOUNDARY AND SURROUNDINGS
MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC POINTS OF VIEW
PURE SUBSTANCE
THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS
STATE
PROCESS
CONTINUUM
CYCLE
PATH FUNCTION AND POINT FUNCTION
TEMPERATURE
ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
THE THERMOMETER AND THERMOMETRIC PROPERTY
DEFINITION OF PRESSURE
2. The barometric and atmospheric pressure
WORK
HEAT
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE OF THE FIRST KIND—PMM1
INTERNAL ENERGY
CYCLIC HEAT ENGINE
ENERGY RESERVOIRS
REFRIGERATOR AND HEAT PUMP
KELVIN-PLANCK STATEMENT OF SECOND LAW
CLAUSIUS' STATEMENT OF THE SECOND LAW
EQUIVALENCE OF KELVIN-PLANCK AND CLAUSIUS STATEMENTS
REVERSIBILITY AND IRREVERSIBILITY
AVAILABILITY
EQUATIONS OF STATE
Boyle's Law
Charles' Law
Characteristic Gas Equation
SPECIFIC HEAT
Specific Heat at Constant Pressure
Specific Heat at Constant Volume
RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEATS
Relationship between the specific heats and the characteristic gas constant
ENTHALPY
ENTROPY
Calculation of entropy change
Temperature - Entropy diagram
( b) Constant pressure ( isobaric ) process
(c) Constant temperature (isothermal) process
(d) Adiabatic process
(i) p - V - T relationship
Relation between p and V for an adiabatic process is,
Relation between V and T for an adiabatic process is,
Relation between p and T for an adiabatic process is,
(e) Polytropic process
Relation between p and V for a polytropic process is,
Relation between V and T for a polytropic process is,
Relation between p and T for a polytropic process is,
POLYTROPIC PROCESSES FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF n
(e) Free expansion
(g) Throttling process
INTRODUCTION
I. THE CARNOT CYCLE
II. CONSTANT VOLUME OR OTTO CYCLE
III. CONSTANT PRESSURE OR DIESEL CYCLE
IV BRAYTON CYCLE
Important refrigeration applications:
ELEMENTS OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
CO-EFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (C.O.P.)
STANDARD RATING OF A REFRIGERATION MACHINE
AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM / REVERSED BRAYTON CYCLE
SIMPLE VAPOUR COMPRESSION SYSTEM
Functions of Parts of a Simple Vapour Compression System
NOMENCLATURE
FOUR-STROKE COMPRESSION IGNITION (CI) ENGINES
TWO-STROKE ENGINE
MULTI POINT FUEL INJECTION (MPFI) ENGINES
Advantage of M. P. F. I
COMMON RAIL DIRECT INJECTION (CRDI) ENGINES
Disadvantages
Advantages
4. Flash Point
5. Pour Point
6. Specific Heat
7. Calorific Value
8. Sulphur
9. Ash Content
10. Carbon Residue
11. Water Content
CLASSIFICATION
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
a) Fixed Carbon
b) Volatile Matter:
c) Ash Content:
d) Moisture Content:
e) Sulphur Content:
Preparation of Coal
(a) Sizing of Coal
PROPERTIES OF GASEOUS FUELS
Calorific Value
LPG
NATURAL GAS
TYPES OF LIQUID FUELS
1. FURNACE OIL / FUEL OIL (FO)
2. LOW SULPHUR HEAVY STOCK (LSHS)
3. LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG)
4. DISEL FUELS(HSD/LDO)
CETANE NUMBER
OCTANE NUMBER
BIO GAS
Advantages of Bio Gas technology
BIOFUEL
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 STEAM POWER PLANT
Working principle:
3.Feed water and steam circuit
4.Cooling water circuit:
Characteristics of steam power plant:
Advantages of steam power plant:
Disadvantages of steam power plant:
7.3. HYDEL POWER PLANT
COMPONENTS OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT:
I. Water reservoir:
2. Dam:
3. Spillway:
5. Pressure tunnel:
6. Penstock:
7. Forebay:
8. Surge Tank:
9. Water turbine:
10.Draft Tube
11. Tailrace:
12. Transformer:
WORKING PRINCIPLE:
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROPOWER PLANTS:
Advantages of hydroelectric power plant:
Disadvantages of hydroelectric power plant:
7.4. DIESEL POWER PLANT
COMPONENTS OF DIESEL POWER PLANT:
1. Diesel engine:
2. Air fiber and super charger:
3. Engine starting system:
5. Fuel system:
6. Lubrication system:
7. Cooling system:
8. Governing system:
9. Exhaust system:
Applications of diesel power plant
Advantages:
7.5. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
Nuclear fission:
Chain reaction:
MAIN COMPONENTS OF NUCLEAR POWERPLANTS
1. Fuel:
2.Nuclear reactor:
3. Steam generator:
4. Moderator:
5. Reflector:
6.Turbine:
7. Control Rods
8. Coolant pump and feed pump:
9. Shielding:
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT:
Advantages of nuclear power plant:
Disadvantages:
7.6. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT
ELEMENTS OF A GAS TURBINE PLANT
1. Compressor:
2. Intercooler:
3.Regenerator:
4. Combustion chambers:
5. Gas turbine:
6. Reheating unit:
WORKING OF GAS TURBINE PLANT:
Advantages of gas turbine plant:
7.7. COMPARISON AND SELECTION
1. Thermal power plant Vs Hydro-plant:
No. Thermal power plant Hydro power plant
2.Diesel power plant Vs Gas turbine power
3. Steam power plant Vs Nuclear power
No. Steam power plant Nuclear power plant
Factors affecting the suitability of the site for tidal power plant
CLASSIFICATION OF TIDAL POWER PLANTS
COMPONENTS OF TIDAL POWER PLANTS
1. Dam (Barrage)
2. Gates and Locks
3. Power house
WORKING
1. Single basin-One-way cycle
Single basin Tidal Power Plant
2. Single-basin two-way cycle
3. Single-basin two-way cycle with pump storage
4. Double basin type
5. Double basin with Pumping
CLASSIFICATION OF WIND MILLS
(a) Horizontal Wind mills
(ii) Horizontal axis - two bladed wind mills
(b) Vertical Wind Mills
Advantages of Wind energy
Disadvantage of Wind energy
Cycle types
1. Closed
2. Open
3. Hybrid
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Hvac Module 1

Hvac Module 1

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Published by Shakeer Pv

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Published by: Shakeer Pv on Nov 08, 2011
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