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Advanced Lift

Advanced Lift

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Published by mkrinker1296
Advanced conception of developing lift
Advanced conception of developing lift

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Published by: mkrinker1296 on Nov 08, 2011
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1
Non-Conventional Approaches to Generating Lift.General Physical Aspects
Mark Krinker
1
 
City College of Technology, Brooklyn, NY, 11201
The paper considers mechanisms of developing lift, based on controlledmolecular collisions of air-composing molecules. There are two groups of therelated approaches: variation of number of collisions between molecules and awall, and control of elasticity of molecular collisions with the wall. The firstgroup realizes specific properties of air in that it pressure depends ontemperature; as well as employing electric field-controlled pressure of polarvapor and introduction the conception of a wing-the-accelerator. Anothergroup converts elastic collisions of molecules with the wall into inelastic ones bymeans of molecular-photon interaction.Nomenclature
 A
= area
 E
= strength of electric field
= specific heat
= Boltzmann constant
 µ 
=
mobility of ions
 M 
= molecular mass
m
= mass
n
= concentration of molecules
 
 N 
 A
=
Avogadro number
 p
= dipole momentum
P
= pressure
 ρ 
=
density of gas
S
= entropy
= temperature
= internal energy
v
= velocity
= volume
= power
ε 
=
relative dielectric permittivity
ε 
 
0
= dielectric permittivity of vacuum
 
Ψ 
 
= free energy
_______________________
1
Member of Advisory Board. Department of Electrical Engineering and TelecommunicationTechnology. 180
Jay Street, Brooklyn
 ,
NY, 11201, MB AIAA
 
2
I. IntroductionP
hysical base of existing aerospace technology is considerably reduced to classicalconcepts of a lift theory and a jet propulsion. However, both the basics have theirintrinsic limitations, which slow new qualitative achievements in the aerospacetechnology.Many new approaches in area of air- and spacecrafts propulsion were theoreticallydeveloped on a base of new concepts, which came to physics during past few decades.Some of them remain controversial, but arguments around them stimulate evolution of the technology.These are Energy of Vacuum, Electromagnetic Control of Gravitation
1
, Plasma MagnetoHydrodynamics Propulsion, Elecrtokinetic Propulsion
3,2
and others.This article deals with considering non-conventional ways of generating lift proposedby the author. Unlike recited above, it considers physical processes associated with liftrather than the thrust and is focused on physical processes of interacting gas moleculeswith a wall.
II. Generating Lift Based on Controlled Molecular Collisions
Physical processes described by Bernoulli’s equation, Eq.1, underlie the lift of aconventional airplane wing.
const Pv
=+
2
2
 ρ 
, (1)where
 ρ 
is a density of gas,
v
- velocity, and
P
is a static pressure.Traditional approach to understand generating lift can be complimented by analyzingprocesses of interaction of gas molecules with an arbitrary surface.Implying an airplane wing, the lift force is a result of difference of static pressures Pbetween both sides of the wing. For the airplane wing said difference is achieved due to atotal action of an air circulation around the wing superimposed on a counter flow.Generally, no mater how this difference is achieved. Technically, the lift can bestimulated by other means like spinning surface in a flow, -Magnus Effect in Flettner’srotors, or something else.Actually, Bernoulli’s equation represents control of the static pressure by means of variation of acts of chaotic collisions between gas molecules and a wall (an airplanewing):
the more horizontal component of velocities of the molecules, the less chancesthey have to experience collisions with a horizontal wall. Consequently, totalmomentum released by the collisions, will be reduced. So does the static pressure P.
 
3Are there alternative ways to control a number of collisions between chaotic gasmolecules and a wall, other than conventional varying horizontal velocity?In other words, we are dealing with controlling gas entropy and other thermodynamicpotentials to control chaotic collision of molecules, having mass
m
and speed
v
, with awall. Here, the various approaches can be offered. For instance, static pressure can becontrolled by means of changing regular elastic collisions between the molecules and thewall, developing momentum
α 
cos2
mv p
=
, for the non-elastic process, releasing
α 
cos
mv p
=
. If non-elastic collisions take place over an upper plane of a wing, andelastic collisions under the lower plane, the difference of the static pressures, as well as alift origin.
Therefore, there are two basic ways of controlling lift by means of moleculardynamics:1.
 
variation of number of collisions between molecules of gas and a wall, and;2.
 
control of elasticity of molecular collisions with the wall.III. Energy Pump
This approach can be referred to the first group.Generally, according to Dalton’s law for the mix of gases (air and others), totalpressure is a sum of partial pressures
n
PPPP
++=
....
21
(2)It can be shown that for the mix of gasses their total pressure is
    
Σ=
ii A
 M  x N kT P
 ρ 
(3),where N
A
is Avogadro number, M
i
is a molecular mass, kg/kmol and x
i
is a mole fractionof any individual gas component in a gas mixtureTable 1 shows contribution of major components of air in the general mix.Components inDry AirMolecular MassM, (kg/kmol)Molecular mass inAir, kg/kmoleX
i
 /M, kmol/kgOxygen 32.00 6.704 0.00723Nitrogen 28.02 21.88 0.0269Argon 39.34 0.013 0.0003Fig.1 shows dependence P(T) for air, calculated on a base of Eq. (3) and Table 1.As seen from the Fig.1, temperature range of 220-273 K is of prime interest fordeveloping lift due to specificity of molecular kinetic of the components of air.The system utilizing these properties for developing lift is a platform havingtemperature 273 K from below and 223 K atop. Therefore, the pressure under the plane

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