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Table Of Contents

1.1 Measures of Amplitude
1.2 Units of Amplitude
1.3 Controlling Amplitude
1.4 Frequency
1.5 Synthesizing a sinusoid
1.6 Superposing Signals
1.7 Periodic Signals
1.8 About the Software Examples
Quick Introduction to Pd
How to find and run the examples
1.9 Examples
Constant amplitude scaler
Amplitude control in decibels
Smoothed amplitude control with an envelope generator
Major triad
Conversion between frequency and pitch
More additive synthesis
Exercises
Wavetables and samplers
2.1 The Wavetable Oscillator
2.2 Sampling
2.3 Enveloping samplers
2.4 Timbre stretching
2.5 Interpolation
2.6 Examples
Wavetable oscillator
Wavetable lookup in general
Using a wavetable as a sampler
Looping samplers
Overlapping sample looper
Automatic read point precession
3.3 Control streams
3.5 Control streams in block diagrams
3.6 Event detection
3.7 Audio signals as control
3.8 Operations on control streams
3.9 Control operations in Pd
3.10 Examples
Sampling and foldover
Converting controls to signals
Non-looping wavetable player
Signals to controls
Analog-style sequencer
MIDI-style synthesizer
4.1 Envelope Generators
4.3.2 Switch-and-ramp
4.4 Polyphony
4.5 Voice allocation
4.6 Voice tags
4.7 Encapsulation in Pd
4.8 Examples
ADSR envelope generator
Transfer functions for amplitude control
Additive synthesis: Risset’s bell
Additive synthesis: spectral envelope control
Polyphonic synthesis: sampler
Modulation
5.1 Taxonomy of spectra
5.2 Multiplying audio signals
5.3 Waveshaping
5.4 Frequency and phase modulation
5.5 Examples
Ring modulation and spectra
Octave divider and formant adder
Waveshaping and difference tones
Waveshaping using Chebychev polynomials
Waveshaping using an exponential function
Sinusoidal waveshaping: evenness and oddness
Phase modulation and FM
Designer spectra
6.1 Carrier/modulator model
6.2 Pulse trains
6.2.1 Pulse trains via waveshaping
6.2.2 Pulse trains via wavetable stretching
6.2.3 Resulting spectra
6.3 Movable ring modulation
6.4 Phase-aligned formant (PAF) generator
6.5 Examples
Wavetable pulse train
Simple formant generator
Two-cosine carrier signal
The PAF generator
Stretched wavetables
Time shifts and delays
7.1 Complex numbers
7.1.1 Complex sinusoids
7.2 Time shifts and phase changes
7.3 Delay networks
7.4 Recirculating delay networks
7.5. POWER CONSERVATION AND COMPLEX DELAY NETWORKS189
7.5 Power conservation and complex delay net-
7.6 Artificial reverberation
7.6.1 Controlling reverberators
7.7 Variable and fractional shifts
7.8. FIDELITY OF INTERPOLATING DELAY LINES 201
7.8 Fidelity of interpolating delay lines
7.9 Pitch shifting
7.10 Examples
Fixed, noninterpolating delay line
Recirculating comb filter
Variable delay line
Order of execution and lower limits on delay times
Order of execution in non-recirculating delay lines
Non-recirculating comb filter as octave doubler
Time-varying complex comb filter: shakers
Reverberator
Pitch shifter
Filters
8.1 Taxonomy of filters
8.1.1 Low-pass and high-pass filters
8.1.2 Band-pass and stop-band filters
8.1.3 Equalizing filters
8.2 Elementary filters
8.2.1 Elementary non-recirculating filter
8.2.2 Non-recirculating filter, second form
8.2.3 Elementary recirculating filter
8.2.4 Compound filters
8.2.5 Real outputs from complex filters
8.2.6 Two recirculating filters for the price of one
8.3 Designing filters
8.3.1 One-pole low-pass filter
8.3.2 One-pole, one-zero high-pass filter
8.3.3 Shelving filter
8.3.4 Band-pass filter
8.3.5 Peaking and stop-band filter
8.3.6 Butterworth filters
8.3.7 Stretching the unit circle with rational functions
8.3.8 Butterworth band-pass filter
8.3.9 Time-varying coefficients
8.3.10 Impulse responses of recirculating filters
8.3.11 All-pass filters
8.4 Applications
8.4.1 Subtractive synthesis
8.4.2 Envelope following
8.4.3 Single Sideband Modulation
Using elementary filters directly: shelving and peaking
Making and using all-pass filters
9.1 Fourier analysis of periodic signals
9.1.1 Periodicity of the Fourier transform
9.1.2 Fourier transform as additive synthesis
9.2 Properties of Fourier transforms
9.2.1 Fourier transform of DC
9.2.2 Shifts and phase changes
9.2.3 Fourier transform of a sinusoid
9.3 Fourier analysis of non-periodic signals
9.4 Fourier analysis and reconstruction of audio
9.4.1 Narrow-band companding
9.4.2 Timbre stamping (classical vocoder)
9.5 Phase
9.5.1 Phase relationships between channels
9.6 Phase bashing
9.7 Examples
Fourier analysis and resynthesis in Pd
Narrow-band companding: noise suppression
Timbre stamp (“vocoder”)
Phase vocoder time bender
Classical waveforms
10.1 Symmetries and Fourier series
10.1.1 Sawtooth waves and symmetry
10.2 Dissecting classical waveforms
10.3 Fourier series of the elementary waveforms
10.3.1 Sawtooth wave
10.3.2 Parabolic wave
10.3.3 Square and symmetric triangle waves
10.3.4 General (non-symmetric) triangle wave
10.4. PREDICTING AND CONTROLLING FOLDOVER 307
10.4 Predicting and controlling foldover
10.4.1 Over-sampling
10.4.2 Sneaky triangle waves
10.4.3 Transition splicing
10.5 Examples
Combining sawtooth waves
Strategies for band-limiting sawtooth waves
Index
Bibliography
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Published by: Arya Sundar on Nov 08, 2011
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