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The relationship between migration status and employment outcomes

The relationship between migration status and employment outcomes

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Our research finds that despite the universal adoption of restrictive immigration policies, together with the criminalisation of migration, there remain relatively large numbers of undocumented migrants in the countries under investigation. For UWT this definition includes foreign citizens present on the territory of a state, in violation of the regulations on entry and residence, having crossed the border illicitly or at an unauthorized point; those whose immigration/migration status is not regular; those who have overstayed their visa or work permit; those who are working in violation of some or all of the conditions attached to their immigration status; and failed asylum seekers or immigrants who have no further right to appeal and have not left the country. This results in higher calculations of numbers than found in the CLANDESTINO project, which has been able to provide detailed and robust data on undocumented migration, but excluding non-nationals working in violation of their migration conditions, including asylum seekers. We note that increased concern about undocumented migration has occurred in the context of the abandonment of the policies, enacted in the 1970s, of closed borders.
Our research finds that despite the universal adoption of restrictive immigration policies, together with the criminalisation of migration, there remain relatively large numbers of undocumented migrants in the countries under investigation. For UWT this definition includes foreign citizens present on the territory of a state, in violation of the regulations on entry and residence, having crossed the border illicitly or at an unauthorized point; those whose immigration/migration status is not regular; those who have overstayed their visa or work permit; those who are working in violation of some or all of the conditions attached to their immigration status; and failed asylum seekers or immigrants who have no further right to appeal and have not left the country. This results in higher calculations of numbers than found in the CLANDESTINO project, which has been able to provide detailed and robust data on undocumented migration, but excluding non-nationals working in violation of their migration conditions, including asylum seekers. We note that increased concern about undocumented migration has occurred in the context of the abandonment of the policies, enacted in the 1970s, of closed borders.

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Published by: Joaquín Vicente Ramos Rodríguez on Nov 08, 2011
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Final report
The relationship betweenmigration status andemployment outcomes
Undocumented Worker TransitionsEU Sixth Framework ProgrammeContract Number: 044272Prepared by Sonia McKay, Eugenia Markova, AnnaParaskevopoulou and Tessa Wright,Working Lives Research InstituteMarch 2009
Revised 21 November 2009
 
Final reportUWT
2
The Undocumented Worker Transitions project
This report is one of several reports prepared by the Undocumented WorkerTransitions (UWT) project, which has been funded by the EU Sixth FrameworkProgramme (Contract Number: 044272) from March 2007 to February 2009. It is co-ordinated by the Working Lives Research Institute (WLRI) at London MetropolitanUniversity, UK, with partners in six other EU Member States. The partners are:Forschungs- und Beratungsstelle Arbeitswelt (FORBA) in Austria; the Centre forSociology of Work, Employment and Training, at the Université Libre de Bruxelles(ULB) in Belgium; the International Centre for Minority Studies and InterculturalRelations (IMIR) in Bulgaria; Roskilde University in Denmark; the Laboratory ofResearch on Immigration and Social Transformations (UNIVE) of Ca’ FoscariUniversity in Venice, in Italy; and Gabinet d’Estudis Socials (GES) in Spain.The UWT website contains all of the published papers produced in the course ofthe two-year project. For information about the project and to access these reports,visit:www.undocumentedmigrants.eu 
 
Final reportUWT
3
 
1. Methodology ........................................................................................................... 17
 
1.1 Overview of research methods .............................................................................. 17
 
1.2 Country reports and European literature review .................................................... 18
 
1.3 Methodology workshop ......................................................................................... 19
 
1.4 Glossary ............................................................................................................... 19
 
1.5 Undocumented estimates ..................................................................................... 20
 
1.6 Expert and stakeholder interviews ........................................................................ 20
 
1.7 Migrant worker interviews ..................................................................................... 21
 
1.8 Ethical guidelines .................................................................................................. 23
 
1.9 Analysis of data and thematic reports ................................................................... 23
 
1.10 Stakeholder workshops ....................................................................................... 242. Overview of migration in the seven partner countries .............................................. 25
 
2.1. Historical account of migration policies ................................................................ 25
 
2.2. Overview of current immigration legal framework and migrant regularisation ....... 26
 
2.2.1 Migrant regularisation programmes ............................................................ 28
 
2.3. Migration and employment law ............................................................................. 312.3.1 Registration and control processes ............................................................ 30
 
2.3.2 Support institutions ..................................................................................... 31
 
2.4. Statistical information ........................................................................................... 31
 
2.5 The impact and experience of undocumented migrants ........................................ 32
 
2.5.1 The impact of undocumented labour .......................................................... 32
 
2.5.2 The experiences of undocumented migrants .............................................. 33
 
2.5.3 Access to services...................................................................................... 353. Estimates of undocumented migration .................................................................... 36
 
3.1 Existing statistical data .......................................................................................... 36
 
3.1.1 Estimates of undocumented migration........................................................ 36
 
3.2 An overview of data sources identified .................................................................. 38
 
3.3 An overview of methods used for estimating the size of the undocumented migrantpopulation ................................................................................................................... 42
 
3.4 Dissemination of data on undocumented migrant estimates ................................. 45Introduction ................................................................................................................... 4Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... 7

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