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Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics:
An intermediate level course

Richard Fitzpatrick
Associate Professor of Physics
The University of Texas at Austin

1 INTRODUCTION
1 Introduction
1.1 Intendedaudience
These lecture notes outline a single semester course intended for upper division
undergraduates.
1.2 Majorsources
The textbooks which I have consulted most frequently whilst developing course
material are:
Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics:F. Reif (McGraw-Hill, New York NY,
1965).
Introduction to quantum theory:D. Park, 3rd Edition (McGraw-Hill, New York NY,
1992).
1.3 Why study thermodynamics?

Thermodynamics is essentially the study of the internal motions of many body systems. Virtually all substances which we encounter in everyday life are many body systems of some sort or other (e.g., solids, liquids, gases, and light). Not surprisingly, therefore, thermodynamics is a discipline with an exceptionally wide range of applicability. Thermodynamics is certainly the most ubiquitous sub\ufb01eld of Physics outside Physics Departments. Engineers, Chemists, and Material Scien- tists do not study relatively or particle physics, but thermodynamics is an integral, and very important, part of their degree courses.

Many people are drawn to Physics because they want to understand why the world around us is like it is. For instance, why the sky is blue, why raindrops are spherical, why we do not fall through the \ufb02oor,etc. It turns out that statistical

2
1.4 The atomic theory of matter
1 INTRODUCTION

thermodynamics can explain more things about the world around us than all of the other physical theories studied in the undergraduate Physics curriculum put together. For instance, in this course we shall explain why heat \ufb02ows from hot to cold bodies, why the air becomes thinner and colder at higher altitudes, why the Sun appears yellow whereas colder stars appear red and hotter stars appear bluish-white, why it is impossible to measure a temperature below -273\u25e6 centigrade, why there is a maximum theoretical ef\ufb01ciency of a power generation unit which can never be exceeded no matter what the design, why high mass stars must ultimately collapse to form black-holes, and much more!

1.4 The atomic theory of matter

According to the well-knownatomic theory of matter, the familiar objects which make up the world around us, such as tables and chairs, are themselves made up of a great many microscopic particles.

Atomic theory was invented by the ancient Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, who speculated that the world essentially consists of myriads of tiny indivisible particles, which they calledatoms, from the Greekatomon, meaning \u201cuncuttable.\u201d They speculated, further, that the observable properties of everyday materials can be explained either in terms of the differentshapes of the atoms which they contain, or the differentmotions of these atoms. In some respects modern atomic theory differs substantially from the primitive theory of Leucippus and Democritus, but the central ideas have remained essentially unchanged. In particular, Leucippus and Democritus were right to suppose that the properties of materials depend not only on the nature of the constituent atoms or molecules, but also on the relative motions of these particles.

1.5 Thermodynamics
In this course, we shall focus almost exclusively on those physical properties of
everyday materials which are associated with themotions of their constituent
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