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Heinbockel - Tensor Calculus - Part

# Heinbockel - Tensor Calculus - Part

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03/18/2014

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er=\ue002r
r.
If the electric \ufb01eld is conservative, then\ue001\u00d7\ue002
E= 0, and so it is derivable from a potential functionV
by taking the negative of the gradient ofV and
\ue002
E=\u2212\ue001V .
(2.6.7)
For these conditions note that\ue001V \u00b7d \ue002r =\u2212\ue002
E\u00b7 d \ue002ris an exact di\ufb00erential so that the potential function can
be represented by the line integral
V= V(P ) = \u2212
\ue010
C
\ue011
er
r2\u03bb\u2217 ds
(2.6.3)

as the electric \ufb01eld at a point P due to this charge distribution. The integral in equation (2.6.3) being a line integral along the curve C and whereds is an element of arc length. Here equation (2.6.3) represents a continuous summation of the charges along the curve C. For a continuous charge distribution over a surface

S, the electric \ufb01eld at a point P is
\ue002
E(P) =1
4\u03c0\ue0000
\ue010\ue010
S
\ue011
er
r2\u00b5\u2217d\u03c3
(2.6.4)
whered\u03c3 represents an element of surface area onS. Similarly, if\u03c1\u2217represents a continuous charge distri-
bution throughout a volumeV , then the electric \ufb01eld is represented
\ue002
E(P) =1
4\u03c0\ue0000
\ue010\ue010 \ue010
V
\ue011
er
r2\u03c1\u2217 d\u03c4
(2.6.5)
whered\u03c4 is an element of volume. In the equations (2.6.3), (2.6.4), (2.6.5) we let (x, y, z) denote the position
of the test charge and let (x\ue000,y\ue000,z\ue000) denote a point on the line, on the surface or within the volume, then
\ue002r= (x\u2212x\ue000)
\ue011
e1+(y\u2212 y\ue000 )
\ue011
e2+(z\u2212 z\ue000 )
\ue011
e3
(2.6.6)
represents the distance from the point P to an element of charge\u03bb\u2217ds, \u00b5\u2217d\u03c3or \u03c1\u2217d\u03c4with r=|\ue002r|and
\ue011
326
where\ue002
E=\ue002
E(P) is the electric \ufb01eld associated with the system of charges. The equation (2.6.2) can be gen-
eralized to other situations by de\ufb01ning other types of charge distributions. We introduce a line charge density
\u03bb\u2217, (coulomb/m), a surface charge density\u00b5\u2217, (coulomb/m2), a volume charge density\u03c1\u2217, (coulomb/m3),

then we can calculate the electric \ufb01eld associated with these other types of charge distributions. For example, if there is a charge distribution\u03bb\u2217=\u03bb\u2217(s) along a curveC, wheres is an arc length parameter, then we would have

\ue002
E(P) =1
4\u03c0\ue0000
\ue010
P
\u03b1
\ue002
E\u00b7 d \ue002r
(2.6.8)
where\u03b1 is some reference point (usually in\ufb01nity, whereV(\u221e) = 0). For a conservative electric \ufb01eld the line
integral will be independent of the path connecting any two pointsa andb so that
V(b) \u2212V(a ) = \u2212
\ue010
b
\u03b1
\ue002
E\u00b7 d \ue002r\u2212
\ue004
\u2212
\ue010
a
\u03b1
\ue002
E\u00b7 d \ue002r
\ue005
=\u2212
\ue010
b
a
\ue002
E\u00b7 d \ue002r=
\ue010
b
a\ue001V \u00b7d\ue002r.
(2.6.9)
Let\u03b1 =\u221e in equation (2.6.8), then the potential function associated with a point charge moving in
\ue011
erisV(r ) = \u2212
\ue010
r
\u221e
\ue002
E\u00b7 d \ue002r=\u2212q
4\u03c0\ue0000
\ue010
r
\u221e
1
r2dr=q
4\u03c0\ue0000
1r|r\u221e=q
4\u03c0\ue0000r.
\ue010
\ue010\ue010\ue010
V
\u03c1\u2217
rd\u03c4and for a surface distribution of chargesV(P) =1
4\u03c0\ue0000
\ue010\ue010
S
\u00b5\u2217
rd\u03c3and for a line
distribution of chargesV (P ) =1
4\u03c0\ue0000
\ue010
C
\u03bb\u2217
rds; and for a discrete distribution of point charges
V(P ) =1
4\u03c0\ue0000
N
\ue00f
i=1
qi
ri. When the potential functions are de\ufb01ned from a common reference point, then the
principal of superposition applies.

The potential functionV is related to the work doneW in moving a charge within the electric \ufb01eld. The work done in moving a test chargeQ from pointa to pointb is an integral of the force times distance moved. The electric force on a test chargeQ is\ue002

F= Q\ue002
Eand so the force\ue002
F=\u2212Q\ue002
Eis in opposition to this
force as you move the test charge. The work done is
W=
\ue010
b
a
\ue002
F\u00b7 d \ue002r=
\ue010
b
a\u2212Q\ue002
E\u00b7 d \ue002r= Q
327
By superposition, the potential at a pointP for a continuous volume distribution of charges is given by
V(P ) =1
4\u03c0\ue0000
b
a\ue001V \u00b7d \ue002r= Q[V(b) \u2212V(a)].
(2.6.10)
The work done is independent of the path joining the two points and depends only on the end points and
the change in the potential. If one movesQ from in\ufb01nity to pointb, then the above becomesW =QV (b).
An electric \ufb01eld\ue002
E=\ue002
E(P) is a vector \ufb01eld which can be represented graphically by constructing vectors

at various selected points in the space. Such a plot is called a vector \ufb01eld plot. A \ufb01eld line associated with a vector \ufb01eld is a curve such that the tangent vector to a point on the curve has the same direction as the vector \ufb01eld at that point. Field lines are used as an aid for visualization of an electric \ufb01eld and vector \ufb01elds in general. The tangent to a \ufb01eld line at a point has the same direction as the vector \ufb01eld\ue002

Eat that point.
For example, in two dimensions let\ue002r =x
\ue011
e1+y
\ue011
e2denote the position vector to a point on a \ufb01eld line. The
tangent vector to this point has the directiond \ue002r =dx
\ue011
e1+dy
\ue011
e2. If\ue002
E=\ue002
E(x, y) =\u2212N(x, y)
\ue011
e1+M (x, y)
\ue011
e2
is the vector \ufb01eld constructed at the same point, then\ue002
Eand d\ue002rmust be colinear. Thus, for each point (x, y)
on a \ufb01eld line we require thatd \ue002r =K\ue002
Efor some constant K. Equating like components we \ufb01nd that the
\ufb01eld lines must satisfy the di\ufb00erential relation.
dx
\u2212N(x, y)=
dy
M(x, y)=K
or
M(x, y) dx+ N(x, y) dy=0.
(2.6.11)
In two dimensions, the family of equipotential curvesV(x, y) =C1=constant, are orthogonal to the family
of \ufb01eld lines and are described by solutions of the di\ufb00erential equation
N(x, y) dx\u2212 M(x, y) dy= 0

obtained from equation (2.6.11) by taking the negative reciprocal of the slope. The \ufb01eld lines are perpendic- ular to the equipotential curves because at each point on the curveV =C1we have\ue001V being perpendicular to the curveV =C1and so it is colinear with\ue002

Eat this same point. Field lines associated with electric
\ufb01elds are called electric lines of force. The density of the \ufb01eld lines drawn per unit cross sectional area are
proportional to the magnitude of the vector \ufb01eld through that area.