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CFD for non-newtonian CMC fluid flow through concentric annuli with centre body rotation , International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121-126, July-September, 2011

CFD for non-newtonian CMC fluid flow through concentric annuli with centre body rotation , International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121-126, July-September, 2011

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Abstract
The laminar flow of non-Newtonian fluid through concentric annuli with centre body rotation has been studied numerically. The scope of this study is limited to numerical prediction of axial velocity profiles and tangential velocity profiles at steady state condition. A general computer program “TEACH-T” has been modified for this purpose. The program was used after sufficient justification. In the present study, confined flow through concentric annuli with centre body rotation is examined numerically by solving the modified Navier-Stokes Equations.

Keywords
Annuli, Flux, Hydraulic diameter, iso-viscous,
Peclect number
Abstract
The laminar flow of non-Newtonian fluid through concentric annuli with centre body rotation has been studied numerically. The scope of this study is limited to numerical prediction of axial velocity profiles and tangential velocity profiles at steady state condition. A general computer program “TEACH-T” has been modified for this purpose. The program was used after sufficient justification. In the present study, confined flow through concentric annuli with centre body rotation is examined numerically by solving the modified Navier-Stokes Equations.

Keywords
Annuli, Flux, Hydraulic diameter, iso-viscous,
Peclect number

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Published by: Dr. Engr. Md Mamunur Rashid on Nov 09, 2011
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07/04/2013

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 International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121-126, July-September, 2011
 
CFD for non-newtonian CMC fluid flow through
 
concentric annuli with centrebody rotation
Md Mamunur Rashid
Faculty, Bangladesh Institute of Management(www.bim.org.bd)  4, Sobhanbag, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1207E-mail: mamun87245@gmail.com
Abstract
The laminar flow of non-Newtonian fluid through concentric annuli with centre body rotation has been studied numerically. The scope of this study islimited to numerical prediction of axial velocity profiles and tangential velocity profiles at steady state condition. A general computer program
“TEACH 
-
T” has been modified for this purpose.
The program was used after sufficient justification. In the present study, confined flow through concentric annuli with centre body rotation isexamined numerically by solving the modified  Navier-Stokes Equations.
 
Keywords
 Annuli, Flux, Hydraulic diameter, iso-viscous, Peclect number
 Nomenclature and list of symbols
m Mass flow rate , Kg/sec
 
Non-dimensional temperature profilesR Half diameter of the pipe or tubeµ Laminar viscosity, N-S/m
2
Q Volumetric flow rate, m
3
 /sGz Graetz numberPr Prandtl numberU Bulk axial velocity
ρ
Fluid density, Kg/m
3
X Axial distance, m
Re
 bulk flow Reynolds number, 2ρU(R 
o
-R
i
)/µ 
 
Ri radius of inner wall of annulusR
o
radius of outer wall of annulusu, v, w axial, radial & tangential velocitiesx, r, 
 
coordinate directions
ζ (r 
-R
i
)/( R
o
-R
i
)
ξ
x/( R
o
-R
i
)K non-Newtonian fluid consistencyindexn power
 – 
law exponent
1.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Generally, developing countries, like Bangladesh hasno other alternative but to approach the foreignconsults to solve problems arising due to fluid flow of non-Newtonian nature. A computer package, whichcan run on available personal computers, will be of much help for Bangladesh. In the present study, adetailed computational investigation on the non-Newtonian fluid flow through concentric annuli withcentre body rotation with CMC(carboxymethylcellulose) as a working fluid will becarried out. The geometry and dimensions of the non-Newtonian fluid flow is based on the experimentalstudies Escudier et al. (1995) [1-2]. Pls see the authorwas presented some works in this arena [4-8]. Thespecific objectives of this study are to develop acomputer program for theoretical investigation of combined axial and tangential laminar velocity of concentric annular with centre body rotation, to studythe constant rotational speed with different Reynoldsnumber of concentric annuli with centre body rotationflow and final attempt would be made to establishreliabilities, suitability and assessment of the qualityof this program through comparing the resultsobtained with those available in the literature.
2.
 
G
OVERNING
DI
FFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
 
This work is concerned with steady laminar flow inconcentric annuli with center body rotation. Therheological equation used in this work is well-knownpower law, viz.
 
121
 
 International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121-126, July-September, 2011
 
nrz
 zvu
    
 
(1)Where,
rz
 
in shear stress, n is a temperatureindependent exponent, which is equal to unity in thepresent work and consistency index K, which is alsotemperature independent.
RiRo

Schematicdiagram ofthe numericalmodel
 Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the numericalmodelThe fluid flow in concentric annuli with center bodyrotation (shown in figure1) is considered under thefollowing conditions: a) the fluid flows in laminarand steady. b
) The fluid density ρ, consistency index
K, thermal conductivity k, and heat capacity C
p
aretemperature independent. Under the assumptionsstated above, the continuity and momentum equationsfor an incompressible fluid in cylinder co-ordinate(r,
 
,
 z)
system are:Continuity:
0
 zvv
 z
 (2)Momentum:
 z z
rr  zr rr   z
 
      
 
 z z
 z z
     
     
2
 
 z z
zr  zz zr  z  z z
          
(3)Where the stress tensors are given by
n
    
   
 
 
n z
 z
    
  
 
 
n zz
 zP
    
 
 
2
 
n z zr 
 z
    
 
 
n
P
    
2
 
 
 
nrr 
P
    
2
 
 
3.
 
D
ISCRETIZED GOVERNINGDIFFERENTIAL
 E
QUATIONS
 
In the present study the finite volume approach, asdescribed by Gosman et al. [1989], is adopted [3].Typical however, the Newtonian term, which isincluded in the present study, is introduced throughthe source terms. In his approach, the governingdifferential equations are discretized by integratingthem over a finite number of control volumes orcomputational cells, into which the solution domain isdivided [10-12]. Discretized transport will take thefollowing quasi-linear form:(a
p
-b
) фp
=
a
nb
ф
nb
+ CWhere the a
nb
are coefficients multiplying the valuesof 
ф at the neighbouring nodes surrounding the
central node P. The umber of neighbour depends onthe interpolation practice or differencing schemesused. Here a
p
is the co-
efficient of ф
p
given bya
p
=
n
a
nb
;
n
Summation over neighbours (N, S, E, W)For the present study, the hybrid Scheme is used.The name Hybrid indicates a combination of theCentral Difference Scheme (CDS) and UpwindDifference Scheme (UDS). For the range of peclectnumber
(ρuL/Γ
) -2< P
e
< 2, both the diffusion andconvective term are evaluated by the CDS. Outsidethis range convective terms are evaluated using theUDS and the diffusion terms are evaluation usingCDS. Boundary conditions of the present study are atinlet boundary, flat profile of axial velocity is122
 
 International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121-126, July-September, 2011
 
specified, at outlet boundary, the gradients of allvariables are set to zero in the axial direction and atwall boundaries; outer wall velocity is set to aconstant value.
4.
 
RESULT
 
AND
 
DISCUSSION
The entire investigation domain is divided into a non-uniform grid arrangement of 52 X32 with multiplerepetition is used. Fine grid spacing was used near thesolid walls and a relative course grid was used in theflow region. For the present study the followingvalues of parameters are chosen:Power law index, n=0.75Consistency index, K=0.04 N-s/m
2
 
Density ρ=1
000 kg/m
3
,Outer radius R
o
=0.0502 mInner radius R
i
=0.0254 mLength, X=5.775 m andRotational speed of inner pipe, N=126 rpm.Figure 2. Axial velocity profiles for CMC fluid atR
e
=110Figure 3. Axial velocity profiles for CMC fluid atR
e
=350Figure 4. Axial velocity profiles for CMC fluid atR
e
=4400Figures 2, 3 and 4 represent the developing axialvelocity profiles i.e. dimensionless radius. Theprofiles at different non-dimensional axial distancesare shown in such a way, that the gradual change inprofiles from flat to developed parabolic type can beeasily inspected. The last curve (at length to hydraulicdiameter ratio, X/D
h
=104) in each case shows thedeveloped axial velocity profile and compared withexperimental results of Escudier et al. (1995). Theprediction is for the iso-viscous laminar flow of fluids. From figure 2 the last curve of the graphshows the developed velocity profile and points of experimental result from Escudier et al. (1995). Themaximum velocity for experimental result is 1.7 andfor numerical solutions it is 1.5. Hence a percentagedeviation of 12% in maximum velocity is observed atthe last station. In the figure 4 at the last station themaximum velocity for experimental result is 1.4 andnumerical solution it is 1.65. Hence percentagedeviations of 17% in maximum velocity observed.For both figures 2 and 3, it is seen for laminar flow(low Reynolds number respectively 110 and 350) themaximum velocity occurs near the inner wall. Higherrotation of inner pipe gives rise to higher shear stressadjacent to the inner wall resulting lower viscosity,consequently maximum velocity near the inner wall123

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