Photographs in this
furnished by the Okonite-Callender
Fig. 5—Cable conductors.
(a) Standard concentric stranded.(b) Compact round.(c) Non-compact sector.(d) Compact sector.(e) Annular stranded (rope core).(f) Segmental.(g) Rope stranded.(h) Hollow core.
electrical breakdown; low a-c resistance due to minimizingof proximity effect; retention of the close stranding duringbending; and for solid cables, elimination of many lon-gitudinal channels along which impregnating compound canmigrate. While most single-conductor cables are of theconcentric-strand type, they may also be compact-round,annular-stranded, segmental, or hollow-core.
I. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The electrical characteristics of cables have been dis-cussed comprehensively in a series of articles’ upon whichmuch of the material presented here has been based. Thischapter is primarily concerned with
determination ofthe electrical constants most commonly needed for power-system calculations, particular emphasis being placed onquantities necessary for the application of symmetricalcomponents.2 A general rule is that regardless of the com-plexity of mutual inductive relations between componentparts of individual phases, the method of symmetricalcomponents can be applied rigorously whenever there issymmetry among phases.All the three-conductor cablesinherently satisfy this condition by the nature of their con-struction; single-conductor cables may or may not, althoughusually the error is small in calculating short-circuit cur-rents. Unsymmetrical spacing and change in permeabilityresulting from different phase currents when certain meth-ods of eliminating sheath currents are used, may producedissymmetry.Those physical characteristics that are of general inter-est in electrical application problems have been includedalong with electrical characteristics in the tables of thissection.All linear dimensions of radius, diameter, separation, ordistance to equivalent earth return are expressed in inchesin the equations in this chapter. This is unlike overheadtransmission line theory where dimensions are in feet,; theuse of inches when dealing with cable construction seemsappropriate. Many equations contain a factor for fre-quency, f, which is the circuit operating frequency in cyclesper second.
1. Geometry of Cables
The space relationship among sheaths and conductors ina cable circuit is a major factor in determining reactance,capacitance, charging current, insulation resistance, dielec-tric loss, and thermal resistance. The symbols used in thischapter for various cable dimensions, both for single-con-ductor and three-conductor types, are given in Figs. 6 and7.
have come into universal use for definingthe cross-section geometry of a cable circuit, and some ofthese are covered in the following paragraphs. 1,2
Geometric Mean Radius
(GMR)—This factor is aproperty usually applied to the conductor alone, and de-pends on the material and stranding used in its construc-tion. One component of conductor reactance3 is normallycalculated by evaluating the integrated flux-linkages bothinside and outside the conductor within an overall twelve-inch radius. Considering a solid conductor, some of the fluxlines lie within the conductor and contribute to total flux-linkages even though they link only a portion of the totalconductor current; if a tubular conductor having an infi-nitely thin wall were substituted for the solid conductor, itsflux would necessarily all be external to the tube. A theo-retical tubular conductor, in order to be inductively equiv-alent to a solid conductor, must have a smaller radius so