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Bees Guelph

Bees Guelph

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BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofitpublishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access tocritical research.
Exposure to Clothianidin Seed-Treated Canola Has NoLong-Term Impact on Honey Bees
Author(s): G. Christopher Cutler and Cynthia D. Scott-DupreeSource: Journal of Economic Entomology, 100(3):765-772. 2007.Published By: Entomological Society of AmericaDOI: 10.1603/0022-0493(2007)100[765:ETCSCH]2.0.CO;2URL:http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1603/0022-0493%282007%29100%5B765%3AETCSCH%5D2.0.CO%3B2
BioOne (www.bioone.org) is an electronic aggregator of bioscience research content,and the online home to over 160 journals and books published by not-for-profit societies,associations, museums, institutions, and presses.Your use of this PDF, the BioOne Web site, and all posted and associatedcontent indicates your acceptance of BioOne’s Terms of Use, available atwww.bioone.org/page/terms_of_use.Usage of BioOne content is strictly limited to personal, educational, and non-commercialuse. Commercial inquiries or rights and permissions requests should be directed to theindividual publisher as copyright holder.
 
E
COTOXICOLOGY
Exposure to Clothianidin Seed-Treated Canola Has No Long-TermImpact on Honey Bees
G. CHRISTOPHER CUTLER
1
AND
CYNTHIA D. SCOTT-DUPREE
Department of Environmental Biology, Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Guelph,Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1J. Econ. Entomol. 100(3): 765
Ð
772 (2007)
ABSTRACT
We conducted a long-term investigation to ascertain effects on honey bee,
Apismellifera
L., colonies during and after exposure to ßowering canola,
Brassica napus
variety Hyola 420,grown from clothianidin-treated seed. Colonies were placed in the middle of 1-ha clothianidinseed-treated or control canola
Þ
elds for 3 wk during bloom, and thereafter they were moved to a fallapiary. There were four treated and four control
Þ
elds, and four colonies per
Þ
eld, giving 32 coloniestotal.Beemortality,workerlongevity,andbrooddevelopmentwereregularlyassessedineachcolonyfor130dfrominitialexposuretocanola.Samplesofhoney,beeswax,pollen,andnectarwereregularlycollectedfor130d,andthesampleswereanalyzedforclothianidinresiduesbyusinghigh-performanceliquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Overall, no differences in beemortality, worker longevity, or brood development occurred between control and treatment groupsthroughout the study. Weight gains of and honey yields from colonies in treated
Þ
elds were notsigni
Þ
cantly different from those in control
Þ
elds. Although clothianidin residues were detected inhoney, nectar, and pollen from colonies in clothianidin-treated
Þ
elds, maximum concentrationsdetectedwere8-to22-foldbelowthereportednoobservableadverseeffectsconcentration.Clothia-nidin residues were not detected in any beeswax sample. Assessment of overwintered colonies inspring found no differences in those originally exposed to treated or control canola. The results showthathoneybeecolonieswill,inthelong-term,beunaffectedbyexposuretoclothianidinseed-treatedcanola.
KEY WORDS
honey bees, clothianidin, seed-treatment, canola, long-term assessmentWild and domesticated bees are key components of many natural and arti
Þ
cial ecosystems. Most angio-sperms would be unable to complete their develop-mentwithouttheaidofpollinators,anditisestimatedthat three quarters of the leading global food cropsrequire or bene
Þ
t from pollination, primarily by bees(Roubik 1995, Michener 2000, Klein et al. 2007). Pol-lination by managed bees, particularly honey bees,
 Apis mellifera
L., in agroecosystems is valued at
US$890 million in Canada (Canadian Honey Coun-cil2005)andalmostUS$15billionintheUnitedStates(MorseandCalderone2000).Inaddition,beekeepingwith honey bees continues to be an important indus-try,generatinghundredsofmillionsofdollarsperyearin North America through honey sales (CanadianHoneyCouncil2005,NationalHoneyBoard2005),notto mention pro
Þ
ts accrued from beeswax, pollen, andother hive products.Although many agricultural crops serve as a richsource of required nectar and pollen, various agricul-tural practices may be hazardous to pollinators. Pes-ticideexposureisregardedapotentialthreattohoneybees; as such, acute toxicity tests on honey bees areusually required before registration of pesticides inCanada and the United States. In an attempt to de-creaseenvironmentalcontaminationandpesticideex-posureinhumansandnontargetorganisms,
reduced-risk
insecticidal seed treatmentsÑalternatives tofoliar applied broad-spectrum insecticidehavebeen pursued. Low-rate systemic insecticides are ap-pliedtosoilordirectlytoseedsatlowconcentrations,and they are subsequently distributed throughoutplant tissues during development, providing pro-longed protection from root and foliar pests, whileavoiding repetitive foliar insecticide applications.Probably the most successful class of reduced-risksystemic insecticides is the chloronicotinyl (syn. neo-nicotinoid) compounds, introduced in 1991 with reg-istration of imidacloprid (Bayer CropScience, Mon-heim am Rhein, Germany) and followed bydevelopment of thiacloprid in 2000 (Bayer Crop-Science). Clothianidin is considered the third mem-ber of the chloronicotinyl class (Jeschke et al. 2003).The seed treatment formulation (Poncho, Bayer
1
Corresponding author: Current address: Faculty of Land andFood Systems, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4(e-mail: gccutler@interchange.ubc.ca).0022-0493/07/0765
Ð
0772$04.00/0
2007 Entomological Society of America
 
CropScience) has high root systemicity and insecti-cidal activity against a wide range of economicallyimportantinsectpestsofsugarbeet(
Betavulgaris
L.);corn,
Zea mays
L.; and oilseed crops (Ohkawara et al.2002, Schwarz et al. 2002). However, there are con-cerns of potential adverse impacts of this class of insecticides on nontarget organisms. Of particularconcern are potential risks to pollinators that may beexposed to chloronicotinyl residues in plant pollenand nectar, and the past decade has witnessed con-siderable debate over this impact on bees. Severalreviews indicate that chronic exposure to concentra-tionsofimidaclopridequivalenttothosefoundinseedtreatments pose negligible risks to honey bees(Schmucketal.2001,Mausetal.2003,Schmuck2004,Faucon et al. 2005). In laboratory studies, Kirchner(1999) found bees rejected imidacloprid-contami-nated food at 20 ppb, and Decourtye et al. (2001)reported compromised learning in bees after expo-sures as low as 12
Ð
48 ppb. Although the majority of studies report no acute or chronic toxicity at imida-clopridexposures
20ppb(forreview,seeMausetal.2003), a controversial study by Suchail et al. (2001)found high chronic toxicity in honey bees fed lowconcentrations of imidacloprid.Some laboratory and
Þ
eld investigations have eval-uated potential effects of clothianidin on pollinators(C.D.S.-D.andM.S.Spivak,unpublisheddata;Frank-linetal.2004;Baileyetal.2005;King2005).However,no experiments have monitored honey bee coloniesduring and after exposure in the
Þ
eld. Here, wepresent results of a long-term study ascertaining im-pactsonhoneybeecoloniesduringandafterexposuretocanolagrownfromseedtreatedwiththemaximumrecommended rate of clothianidin.
Materials and Methods
With exception of data collected during the springcolony assessment, this research was conducted inaccordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation Development Principles of Good Labora-tory Practice (EPA 1989, OECD 1999).
Seed Treatment.
Nongenetically transformed canola,
Brassica napus
variety Hyola 420 (Interstate PaycoSeed Company, West Fargo, ND), was subjected toone of the following treatments: 1) clothianidin-treated seed prepared with a seed-treatment slurryconsistingofProsperFL(9.64%clothianidin,plusfun-gicides thiram, carboxin, and metalaxyl, Bayer Crop-Science)at1,375.0ml/100kgseed,andPoncho600FS(48.96%clothianidin,BayerCropScience)at458.7ml/100kgseed.Thisslurrydeliveredclothianidinat400gactive ingredient (AI)/100 kg seed, the highest rec-ommended rate for canola in Canada; or 2) controlseed treated with a specially prepared Prosper FL
blank
formulation, delivering the same rate of fun-gicides and inert ingredients as the clothianidin-treatedseed,withoutclothianidin,andaspeciallypre-pared Poncho 600 FS blank formulation that alsocontained the inert ingredients but lacked clothiani-din. Samples of clothianidin-treated and control seedweresenttoALSEnvironmental(Edmonton,Alberta,Canada) for veri
Þ
cation of clothianidin content.
CanolaFields.
Springcanola
Þ
eldswereestablishedon the University of Guelph Elora Research Station,Elora, Ontario, Canada (two sites, E1 and E2) and ontwo farms owned by grower cooperators (two sites,W3 and W4) in proximity to the Elora Research Sta-tion. Each site consisted of two 1-ha
Þ
elds, one
Þ
eldplanted with clothianidin-treated seed and the other
Þ
eldplantedwithcontrolseed,givingeight
Þ
eldstotal.Fields at each site were separated by at least 295 m,determined by global positioning system. Canolaseedswereplantedon20
Ð
21Mayatadeptho
4cmin a
Þ
ne,
Þ
rm seedbed at the highest recommendedrate(8.0kg/ha)toensureahighnumberofplantsandample forage for bees. Therefore, clothianidin wasappliedat32g(AI)/ha.Asectionof 
Þ
eldE1Cwasnotseeded properly during the initial planting and wasreplanted on 6 June. All
Þ
elds received a preplanttreatment with Treßan EC (Dow AgroSciences Can-ada Inc., Calgary, Alberta, Canada) and fertilizer ac-cording to Ontario canola production recommenda-tions(OMAF2004).Comprehensiveground-truthingdetermined that availability of alternative foragewithin 1 km of the colonies situated in canola
Þ
eldswas negligible. To our knowledge, no other ßoweringcrops or corn grown from seed treated with clothia-nidin were planted within a 1-km radius of our test
Þ
elds.Canola seedling emergence rates were determinedon 3 and 7
Ð
8 June. On each date, the number of emerged plants per 1-m row in 10 randomly selectedlocations in each
Þ
eld was counted. Plant growth ineach meter (all plants combined) was assessed andassigned a rank: 1, cotyledon; 2, two true leaves; 3,three true leaves; 4, four true leaves; and 5,
Þ
ve trueleaves. Crucifer ßea beetle,
Phyllotreta cruciferae
Goeze, and striped ßea beetle,
Phyllotreta striolata
(F.),damageineachmeterofplantsalsowasassessedby rank: 0, no damage; 1, up to 25% damage; 2, up to50%damage;3,upto75%damage;and4,100%damage.
Colony Establishment, Maintenance, and Trans-port.
Before placement in canola, test colonies (
n
32) were held at a spring apiary near the TownsendHouse Bee Research Facility (THBRF) at the Uni-versityofGuelph.Testcolonieshadsuccessfullyover-wintered, and they were headed by naturally matedqueens of the same lineage and approximately thesame age. Throughout the study, queen cells weredestroyed whenever found to prevent swarming. Atinitiation of the experiment each colony consisted of asinglebroodchamber(24cmindepth,10framespersuper), below a shallow honey super (16.5 cm indepth, nine frames per super). An Ontario Agricul-tural College (OAC) pollen trap (Smith 1963) was
Þ
tted above the bottom board of each colony. Allmoveable components of each colony (e.g., broodchambers, supers, covers) were labeled to ensure ac-curate cross-referencing. In spring, all colonies re-ceived three 30-g dustings of a 5:1 icing sugar/oxytet-racycline(Terramycin25,P
Þ
zerInc.,NewYork,NY)mixture at 1-wk intervals to protect against American766 J
OURNAL OF
E
CONOMIC
E
NTOMOLOGY
Vol. 100, no. 3

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