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Theory of the Electron as a Composite Particle

Zoran B.TodorovićFaculty of Sciences, University of Prishtina, Serbia&MontenegroOn the basis of derived modified quantum commutation relations for sub-spins have been shown that electron could be a composite particle .Applying quantum commutations has been calculated fractal size of each sub-particle which build the internal structure of the electron.PACS:Electron, Internal structure, Composite particle.The beginnings of quantum mechanics dated in 1897 when J. J. Thomson defined the ratio of the electric charge of anelectron to its mass. Consequences of such discovery could not have been predicted, and none could have had thefaintest idea that the electron would assume one of the major roles in creation of new technological civilization of thetwentieth century.Nevertheless, some questions concerning the electron have still remained open. The Dehmelt

[ ]

1

indicated the possibility that the electron might have an internal structure. By discovering and studying the unknowns of the electron, physicists solve numerous problems in the area of experimental and theoretical physics. In such problems, the electronis treated as a point-particle with electric charge e, Einstein’s energy

mc

2

, impulse

mv p

=

, Bohr΄s magneton

( )

0

2/

me

B

=

µ

and spin of

/2. And this is, according to such opinion, quite sufficient

[ ]

2

. The other propertiesof the electron, such as: possible spatiality and internal structure appear to be useless and may well be designated asacademic by character. And that, simply because the electron remained inconceivable in its very essence, because noempirical parameter had been explained theoretically

[ ]

3

. Even after the turn of the twenty-first century, it remainedan unsolved puzzle, a riddle that still inflames imagination of physicists who hope that one- day they will solve it andremove the veil behind which it is so well concealed.We will see how electron as a point is “broken” apart, and how that points hides an internal structure. This means thatwe cannot speak of the mathematical concept of point any more; it becomes, because it contains three other pointswithin itself, an entity with certain spatiality.Due to its internal structure, the electron loses its property of an elementary particle; it becomes equal to the proton, atleast concerning the number of sub-particles it is made of, and at the same time, the communication between theelectron and the proton in the hydrogen atom becomes symmetrical; three sub-particles in the electron communicatewith three quarks in the proton, thus making the hydrogen atom stable. How to explain communication of the electronas a point particle, as considered by the Standard Model, with the proton as a complex particle in an atom? Gel-Mann

[ ]

4

and Zweig

[ ]

5

postulated the theory of possible existence of quarks in the proton, which was experimentallyconfirmed. However, the electron still keeps its status of a point particle in quantum electrodynamics. This means that,according to mathematical definition of point, it has no spatial dimensions; and such definition of the electron is still ineffect; the electron has mass, electric charge, spin and magnetic moment, internal energy, depending on the state of motion,

2

mc

. All of its physical properties are measured through experiments, but on the location where it occupieszero space. In other words, there is something nowhere, which is not only hard to imagine, but is impossible tounderstand; it is counterintuitive and collides with common ense.The electron as a point particle in the theory of quantum electrodynamics gives much trouble to physicists; divergentintegrals show up. Fortunately enough, physicists have found a mathematics-compliant theory applying which thedivergent integrals disappear; they obtain results that are experimentally confirmed, which makes everybody happy.But, they are still weighed down by worries, as if having the sword of Damocles hung above their heads, that this is notthe right theory to describe natural phenomena related to the electron without spatial dimensions. This gives rise tospeculations and considerations of a possible internal structure of the electron, which cancels it as a point particle andgives it some, although miniscule, spatial dimensions.The attidudes and the opinion, about some open and stil actual problems, in the modern physics, by the Russian physicist A.S. Davidov

[ ]

6

introduced in his book „Quantum Mechanics“ of which some especially related to theelectron , even after his book was published, have remained stil enigmatic.The Davidov's words will be partialy quotedin below (pp234/235)as follows:„Novadays, the numerous particles are known such as :electrons, protons,

−

µ

mesons (mesotrons),

−

π

mesons- pions, K-mesons (kaons) etc , which are called << elementary particles>>, but on the present level of knowledge it isimpossible to discuss about <<internal structure>> of the particles.These particles are characterized by dhe definitevalue of proper mass (mass at the state of rest), so they might be the neutral, or charged with electricity (positive or negative) .The absolute electrical value of all stable particles charged with electricity is equal…one of the mostimportant features of the elementary particles is appeared at the moment of their birth, disappearing and mutualtransformation during their mutual affection. In that way the photons will be born at the change of the motion

character of the electrons located in the atoms as or the proton in the atomic nuclea. At the collision of the nuclei of the high energy the pions are born. Neutron, as emited electron and antineutrino will be transformed into the proton.On the other side , the protons, located in the structure of the atomic nuclea, by emiting neutrino and positron , could betransformed into neutron. The photons in the nuclea's field could be transformed into the pair of electron-positron etc.The discovery of the possibilities (in accordance with the law suistainable nergy, the law of electricity load andsome other laws of the suistainibility) the birth, the annulment (disappearing) and the mutual transformation of theelementary particles have been appearing as one of the most outstanding accomplishments in the perception of theobjective (real) characteristics of the surrounding world and the mutual relationship of the different phenomena innature.In the connestion with the notion of <<the elementary>> and <<the isolattion>of some particles in the relationto the others has become more and more the indefinite one.. In accordance with the present level of knowledge , themutual interaction among the same type of particles is effected by the other type of particles . In that way , e.g. thecharged with electricity or the neutral pion transfer the nuclear mutual affection among the nuclei..To say vice versa , protons and neutrons look as they are surounded by the mezon's cloud, across which ones their mutual affection isrealized ; the mezon's cluds appeared as the integral part of the protons and the neutrons, so mostly they determinetheir features. On the other side, protons-neutrons by themselves determine the numerous pion's features.In this sensethe notion (idea) of <<the isolated particles>> in any form becomes senseless .So, the idea about <<free motion of particles>> could be only the rough idealisation of the reality. In relativistic quantum mechanics of the single particle it is not possible to locate the particle in the space, which linear dimensions are less than

( )

cm

0

4/

, where

−

0

m

means the mass of the particle at the state of rest, but in the opposite case respect Heisenberg's uncertaintyrelation to the particles, will be transferred the energy

( )

m p

2/

2

, sufficient to create the pair of particles. That iswhy, the perception of the single particle can be consider provided the external fields are absent, which leads to the<<location of the particle>> in the space, which linear dimensions are less than Compton's wavelength

cm

0

/

of the corresponding particle. For the border relativistic particle- light quantum

( )

cvm

==

,0

- the concept of thecoordinate of the particle in the ordinary sense is completely missed”.Sokolov

[ ]

7

stated the following:”Until now all the attempts have been made in order to form electrodynamics withthe final value of the electron radius which equals with the classical radius of electron

150

10

−

≈

r

m (Lorentz'stheory, non-linear Born-Infeld theory, theory Bopp-Podoljsky with the higher derivatives etc.) was not submitted to anyconvincing results. Even more, all these theories have been gained the principle difficulties during their quantumgeneralization .On the other side, the theory of the punctual-point electron, if

0

0

→

r

leads to the endless value of themass, as well in the classical as in the quantum theory (p.304)”.The problems still opened, as Davidov and Sokolov explained a few decades ago, are still present, what isunambiguously possible to find in the work M.V. Tokarev

[ ]

8

”:The fundamental problems of the high energy physics are in the origin of the mass, the spin and the electron charge…The new ideas and the theories are connectedwith the extra dimensions, anisotropy, and fractal space-time, the structures of the quarks, and the theories of the GrandUnification”.As we are going to discuss here about the internal structure of the electron, we are under the obligation to point outsome of the circumstances as the facts not contributed to the theory of electron as the point particle. It would be usefulto remind the problem known as the Lamb's shift.It presents the energetic displacement of the electron within thehydrogen atom as the consequence of the influence of the electromagnetic field vacuum on the electron.Thetheoreticians have found the solution for this problem using the principle of the regularization, by defining the lower and the upper border line of the spectrum integration with the method known as <<cut off>>.We consider that electron has interaction with electromagnetic field of vacuum, but always in the association with thevirtual electron, where the virtual electron presents the part of the virtual system electron-positron. In that way, theunited electron and the virtual electron in the simplest case where their spins are anti-parallel, in the electromagneticfield of vacuum, which we consider as the homogenous one, and with the definite value of the amplitude of that withinthe field exposed through the middle value, as << cuted off >>on

( )

B

cm H

µ µ

020

/

=

[ ]

9

, present the bosonwhich according to the rules of quantum mechanics applies Schrődinger`s equation (

0

m

-mass of the electron at thestate of rest;

c-

the light velocity in the vacuum;

−

B

µ

Bohrُs magneton).The solution of the equation gives the wave function

Ψ

as the key used to calculate all physical electron׳scharacteristics. Because of its important role in the theory , we write down the expression for psi function..It isexpressed in the form of

( )

( )

( )

20200

4/exp22/1

X r X r

−=Ψ

π

.Already the density of probability by itself

( )

20202

2/exp/1

X r V

−=Ψ=ΨΨ

∗

gives us very important parameter , and it is the volume which isencompassed by the smeared electron in the space of the Compton׳s wavelength.It makes out

( )

( )

2000

22

X r V

π

=

.It is also possible to determine it from the relation

( )

( )

2000

22//

X r B H

B B

π µ µ µ

==

.The distribution of the mass and the electric charge of electron in this

field is according to the Gauss׳s law, and the size of the volume depends of the state of the electron in the relation tothe external fields, so it is changed according to the law

( )

2/320

1

β

β

−=

V V

.Already in that relation we noted theforbiden state as evidently

1

=

β

, because it is in collision with theory of relativity , from here we can draw theconclusion of the impossibility to obtain the zero volume for

1

=

β

; it means that the electron cannot be the point particle, because the point particle according to the mathematical definition of the point presents the entity out of thespatial dimension. Another important link used for description of the electron is in the application of Maxwell׳srelation for density of the electromagnetic energy on the electron.Namely, Maxwell׳ srelation for density of theelectromagnetic energy is

( ) ( )

.2/12/1

2020

BH B E

=+=

µ ε ϖ

As we know

E

and

B

are the transverzalcomponents of the electric and magnetic field of the photon.If we include in this expression the<< cut off>> values of the magnetic field components

H

and the equivalent value of the magnetic induction (

em H B

/

000

ω µ

==

;

00

/

X c

=

ω

is the frequency of the oscillator , formed by electron-virtual electronsystem) and so, we consequently get the density of substance building up electron. It makes out

( )

[ ]

2000

//1

em

e

ω µ ϖ

=

.In the arbital state, while electron is moved under the influence of the external field , it is possible to demonstrate that the density of the electron substance is changed consequently to the law:

( )

220

1/

β ϖ ϖ

β

−=

.If this density is multiplied by the volume of the smeared electron in that condition weobtain:

( ) ( )

2202/320220

1/11/

β β β ϖ ϖ

β β

−=−−=

cmV V

, which is well -known Einstein׳s of changing theelectron׳s proper energy during its movement

[ ]

15

. If the electron were the point particle result of the left sidewould be zero, which is automatically in the collision with the theory of relativity for the electron energy..Accordingto this , it is completely clear that the electron cannot be the point particle.In this case the questions are broadened:if itis not the point particle how big are its spatial dimensions, and if it could have the spatial dimensions , consequently itcould be one complex object.Our purpose is to introduce through the work the possibility that electron may be acomplex object , it means the object with internal structure. Until now we suppose for necessity of symmetry, as anexample within hydrogen atom, in the interaction between electron and proton having three quarks and a repercussionon the stability of the atom, this offers the reason for existing inner structure of the electron.Before we pass to the commutative relations , from which we will get the compounded fractal parts of the electron ,we bear in ouar mind necessity to comment the facts in the quantum mechanics accepted without explanation-automatically , and which one the observed interest has not be devoted. Namely, it is concerned by the known relationfor the operator of impulse and energy. To remind they are written the following well-known relations : :

−=

i p

for impulse and

t i E

∂∂=

/

[ ]

12,11,10

. for energy. If the bozons are concerned the problem isunderstandable, the bozon׳s spin is the wholenumber value derived from Plank׳s constant. But, if the fermions areconcerned, concrete for electron, why wholenumber value is still written of Plank׳s constant, since we know that itsspin is equal to the half value of Plank׳s constant? The answer may be single and it explains:in the wholenumber valueof Plank׳s constant the spin of electron is included which we observe according to the Schrödinger׳s or Dirac׳sequation or the commutators, and the spin of the virtual electron, which we have not taken in the mind. The obtainedtheoretical results were in accordance with the experiments, so it was satisfied.In the following, it will be prooved that by taking into consideration the virtual electron we will get spontaneously tothe internal structure of electron.. Why the virtual electron must be taken into the consideration? The answer is in thefact that the electron may not exist in the real world as an isolated particle, so it is always in the link with its virtualelectron; virtual electron is the part of the virtual pair electron-positron, and electron permanently has been followed by ithat pair as its shadow

[ ]

9

.On the occasion of the “

th

100

Anniversary of the Discovery of the Electron”

[ ]

9

, a Russian physicist A.A. Bogussays:”The electron, as much as 100 years ago, remains a natural phenomenon not completely resolved. By the time being, strictly speaking, no adequate theoretical explanations have been found for parameters of most important physical properties of the electron, such as; mass, electric charge, spin; they remain to be empirical characteristics takenover from experiments”.As we are going to discuss here about possible electron's structure, which was experimentally measured by PurdueUniversity physicists and others

{ }

, as well we are under the obligation to point out some of the circumstances, as thefacts not contributed to the theory of electron as the point particle. It would be useful to remind the problem known asthe Lamb's shift. It presents the energetic displacement of the electron within the hydrogen atom as the consequence of the influence of the electromagnetic field vacuum on the electron. The theoreticians have found the solution for this problem using the principle of the regularization, by defining the lower and the upper border line of the spectrumintegration with the method known as <<cut off>>.After all, our aim in this work is to verify by quantum-mechanical theory the experimental data according tomeasurements by Purdue University physicists et.al

[ ]

10

, and then apply that theory on the possible internal structurewithin “bare” electron as na central core of the complex electron..According to experimental data they stated following:“All charges are surrounded by clouds of virtual photons, which spend part of their existence dissociated into fermion-

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