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ABAP Question QB2 24Oct2007

ABAP Question QB2 24Oct2007

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QB \u2013 2
M. Rajagopalan
SAP ABAP [Reports / Scripts / BDC / Dialogs] QB - 2
ABAP Reporting
Master data is a collection of information about a person or an object, e.g. a cost object, vendor, or G/L

account. For example, a vendor master record contains not only general information such as the vendor\u2019s name and address, but also specific information, such as payment terms and delivery instructions. Generally for end users, master data is reference data that you will look up and use, but not create or change.

Transactional data is data related to a single business event such as a purchase requisition or a request for

payment. When you create a requisition, for example, SAP creates an electronic document for that particular transaction. SAP gives the transaction a document number and adds the document to the transaction data that is already in the system. Whenever you complete a transaction in SAP, that is, when you create, change, or print a document in SAP, this document number appears at the bottom of the screen.


A routing tool in SAP that forwards documents for review or approval. For example, a requisition that needs to be approved is sent to the appropriate approver's inbox. Workflow is also used to route journal vouchers, credit card charges, and other documents in SAP.

Cost Object:

A Cost Object collects expenses and revenues for a particular purpose, such as a research project. In SAP there are three types of cost objects: Cost Center, Internal Order, and WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) Element (see below for definition).

Cost Center:
General or operating Cost Objects are known in SAP as Cost Centers. Cost Centers are budgeted on the
fiscal year.
Internal Order:
A non-sponsored Cost Object (for example, funding from the MIT Provost) used to track costs over periods
other than fiscal years. Internal Orders are often created to track gifts or endowments at MIT.
WBS Element: WBS Elements are funded by outside sponsors and are used to track costs of a particular
research project over the entire span of its activity. They may also be created to track other sponsored
activities, such as gifts.
G/L Account:

G/L accounts are also called Cost Elements in SAP. They are a classification by expense or revenue type. In the CO (Controlling) module of SAP, the term Cost Element is used. In the FI (Financial) module, the term G/L Account is used. These terms are used interchangeably for reporting, requisitions, and journal vouchers.

\ue000Database tables and open SQL
Add a single record to a database table
insert into <database table> values <work area>
Inserting all lines from an internal table into a database table:
insert <database table> from table <internal table>
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M. Rajagopalan
Delete all records
* from zmellemtab.
delete zmellemtab.
Deleting records using records from an internal table
delete employees from table itab.
What are the central interfaces of the R/3 system ?

Presentation interface
Database interface
Operating system interface

Which interface controls what is shown on the p.c. ?
Presentation interface
Which interface converts SQL requirements in the SAP development system to those of the
database ?
Database interface
What is SAP dispatcher ?
- SAP dispatcher is the control agent which manages the
resourcesfor the R/3 applications.
What are the functions of dispatcher ?
Equal distribution of transaction load to the work processes
Management of buffer areas in main memory
Integration of the presentation levels
Organization of communication activies
What is a work process ?
- A work process is where
individual dialog steps are actually processed and the work is
done. Each work process handles one type of request.
Name various work processes of R/3 system ?

1) Dialog or Online ( processes only one request at a time )
2) Background ( started at a specified time )
3) Update ( primary or secondary )
4) Enque( lock mechanism )
5) Spool ( generated online or during back ground processing For printing )

What are the types of Update requests ?
- An update request can be divided intoone primary (V1) andseveral Secondary update components
(V2). Time-critical operations are placed in V1 component and those whose timing are less critical are
placed in V2 components. If a V1 update fails, V2 components will not be processed.
What are the roll and page areas ?

- Roll and page areas are SAP R/3 buffers used to store user contexts ( process requests ) . The SAP dispatcher assigns process requests to work processes as they are received. If the work process is unavailable the process requests are queued in the roll and page areas.

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M. Rajagopalan
Paging area holds data from the application programs.
Roll area holds data from previous dialog steps and data that characterizes user.
What is a Spool request ?

- Spool requests are generated during dialog or background processing and placed in the spool database with information about the printer and print format. The actual data is placed in the Tem Se (Temporary Sequential objects).

What are the different database integrities ?
Semantic integrity
- Relational integrity
Primary key integrity
Value set integrity
Foreign key integrity and
- Operational integrity.
Type of a table or structure

The table type determines how the logical table description defined in
the ABAP/4 Dictionary is reproduced on the database.
There are the following table types:

o transparent table
o structure
o append structure

For internal purposes, such as storing control data or update texts, there are in addition the following table
o pooled table
o cluster table
o generated view structure
Transparent table
There is a physical table on the database for each transparent table. The names of the physical tables and
the logical table definition in the ABAP/4 Dictionary correspond.
All business data and application data are stored in transparent tables.
No data records exist in the database for a structure. Structures are used for the interface definition
between programs or between screens and programs.
Append structure
An append structure defines a set of fields which belong to another table or structure but which are treated
in the correction administration as its own object. Append structures are used to support modifications.
Pooled table

Pooled tables can be used to store control data (e.g. screen sequences, program parameters or temporary
data). Several pooled tables can be combined to form a table pool. The table pool corresponds to a
physical table on the database in which all the records of the allocated pooled tables are stored.

Cluster table

Cluster tables contain continuous text, for example, documentation. Several cluster tables can be combined to form a table cluster. Several logical lines of different tables are combined to form a physical record in this table type. This permits object-by-object storage or bject-by-object access. In order to combine tables in clusters, at least parts of the keys must agree. Several cluster tables are stored in one corresponding table on the database.

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