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Abstract
Noise, Speed, and Power Trade-offs in Pipelined Analog to Digital
Converters

by
David William Cline
Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering

Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
University of California at Berkeley
Professor Paul R. Gray, Chair

Power dissipation is becoming an increasingly important issue in the design of analog to digi- tal converters as signal processing systems move into applications requiring either portability, or as in the case of some telecommunications applications, a high degree of parallelism. This research focuses on minimizing power dissipation in high resolution pipelined analog to digital converters, which are needed in applications requiring both high data rates and high resolution, such as medi- cal imaging, high data rate digital radio receivers, and in some telecommunications systems. Power dissipation was minimized in this research through the appropriate choice of the per stage resolution, optimizing the distribution of the thermal noise budget among the various stages of the pipeline, the appropriate choice of opamp architecture, and through optimal sizing of opamps.

This thesis concludes that the optimum per stage resolution increases as the resolution speci\ufb01- cation increases. Per stage resolutions of less than one bit per stage are ideal for low resolution pipelines, but higher per stage resolutions are optimal for pipelines that have tighter noise con- straints. This thesis also concludes that power is saved by scaling down the sizes of the sampling capacitors in later stages of the pipeline.

The trade-off between speed and power dissipation for opamps in switched capacitor circuits was also studied. It was found that for low gain high speed switched capacitor circuits, the single stage, telescopic cascode, and preamplifier driving a single stage opamp met the speed require-

ii
ments with the least power dissipation. For lower speeds, the preamplifier driving a single stage
opamp had the least power.
_____________________________
Paul R. Gray, Chair
Acknowledgements
iii
Acknowledgments

First of all, I would like to express my appreciation of Professor Gray for his patient guidance of me during my years of graduate school here. I was truly very fortunate to have the opportunity to work under him as a student. In addition to providing guidance in circuit design issues, he also provided help in technical writing style and presentation style, and I found this guidance to be extremely valuable.

I would also like to express my appreciation to the other students in Professor Gray\u2019s group. I think that the atmosphere in this research group is very good. When I started working in this group, I immediately noticed and valued the high level of communication and the free flow of ideas here. I also found the environment to be very comfortable to work in, and people were very accepting. I feel very fortunate to have had the opportunity to work with the other students in this group.

I especially appreciate Cormac Conroy for his guidance and friendship during my time here at U. C. Berkeley. I worked with him closely on his parallel pipelined ADC and through working with him learned a great deal about circuit design. In addition to being a valuable resource, he was also a very good friend and provided a great deal of support to me through all the phases of my Ph.D. work.

I greatly valued sharing hiking stories with Eric Boskin, with whom I share an enthusiasm for
the environment, about backpacking trips to the Sierra Nevada.

I also appreciate Robert Neff, who did a lot of work on ADC calibration and opamp compen- sation techniques that helped me get started on this project. I also enjoyed talking with him about a variety of things, including trips to the mountains and to the rivers.

Thomas Cho also was a valuable resource and friend to me during my research here at U. C. Berkeley. Despite his genius for circuit design, he dealt with people in a very humble manner, and I also appreciated him for listening to my ideas and providing feedback.

I would also like to thank Gani Jusuf for providing so much interesting conversation during the
time we shared the office at 550J Cory Hall. In addition to doing our electronics research, I think

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