Typical distribution system.
includes all parts of an electric utility system between bulk powersources and the consumers’service-entrance equipments. Some electric utility distribution engineers,however, use a more limited definition of distribution as that portion of the utility system between thedistribution substations and the consumers’service-entrance equipment. In general, a typical distrib-ution system consists of (1) subtransmission circuits with voltage ratings usually between 12.47 and345 kV which deliver energy to the distribution substations, (2) distribution substations which convertthe energy to a lower
voltage for local distribution and usually include facilities forvoltage regulation of the primary voltage, (3) primary circuits or
, usually operating in therange of 4.16 to 34.5 kV and supplying the load in a well-defined geographic area, (4) distributiontransformers in ratings from 10 to 2500 kVA which may be installed on poles or grade-level pads orin underground vaults near the consumers and transform the primary voltages to utilization voltages,(5) secondary circuits at utilization voltage which carry the energy from the distribution transformeralong the street or rear-lot lines, and (6) service drops which deliver the energy from the secondaryto the user’s service-entrance equipment. Figures 18-1and 18-2depict the component parts of a typ-ical distribution system.Distribution investment constitutes 50% of the capital investment of a typical electric utility sys-tem. Recent trends away from generation expansion at many utilities have put increased emphasison distribution system development.The function of distribution is to receive electric power from large, bulk sources and to distributeit to consumers at voltage levels and with degrees of reliability that are appropriate to the varioustypes of users.For single-phase residential users, American National Standard Institute (ANSI) C84.1-1989defines
Voltage Range A
as 114/228 V to 126/252 V at the user’s service entrance and 110/220 V to126/252 V at the point of utilization. This allows for voltage drop in the consumer’s system. Nominalvoltage is 120/240 V. Within Range A utilization voltage, utilization equipment is designed and ratedto give fully satisfactory performance.As a practical matter, voltages above and below Range A do occur occasionally; however, ANSIC84.1 specifies that these conditions shall be limited in extent, frequency, and duration. When theydo occur, corrective measures shall be undertaken within a reasonable time to improve voltages tomeet Range A requirements.Rapid dips in voltage which cause incandescent-lamp “flicker” should be limited to 4% or 6%when they occur infrequently and 3% or 4% when they occur several times per hour. Frequent dips,such as those caused by elevators and industrial equipment, should be limited to 1
% or 2%.