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SECTION 18
POWER DISTRIBUTION
Daniel J.Ward
Principal Engineer, Dominion Virginia Power; Fellow, IEEE; Chair, IEEE DistributionSubcommittee;Chair, ANSI C84.1 Committee, Past Vice Chair (PES), Power Quality StandardsCoordinating Committee
CONTENTS
18.1DISTRIBUTION DEFINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-218.2DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEM AUTOMATION . . . . . . . . . . .18-718.3CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATIONOF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-818.4CALCULATION OF VOLTAGE REGULATIONAND I
2
R LOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-918.5THE SUBTRANSMISSION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-1618.6PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-2018.7THE COMMON-NEUTRAL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-2518.8VOLTAGE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-2718.9OVERCURRENT PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-3118.10OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-4218.11DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-4818.12SECONDARY RADIAL DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . .18-5018.13BANKING OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS . . .18-5218.14APPLICATION OF CAPACITORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-5318.15POLES AND STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-5618.16STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF POLE LINES . . . . . . . . . .18-6218.17LINE CONDUCTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-6818.18OPEN-WIRE LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-7018.19JOINT-LINE CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-7118.20UNDERGROUND RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION . . .18-7218.21UNDERGROUND SERVICE TO LARGECOMMERCIAL LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-7718.22LOW-VOLTAGE SECONDARY-NETWORKSYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-8018.23CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND SYSTEMSFOR DOWNTOWN AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-8318.24UNDERGROUND CABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-8718.25FEEDERS FOR RURAL SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-9818.26DEMAND AND DIVERSITY FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . .18-10218.27DISTRIBUTION ECONOMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-10318.28DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-10718.29STREET-LIGHTING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-10918.30RELIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-11018.31EUROPEAN PRACTICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-112BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-115
18-1
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS
 
18-2
SECTION EIGHTEEN
FIGURE 18-1
Typical distribution system.
18.1DISTRIBUTION DEFINE
Broadly speaking,
distribution
includes all parts of an electric utility system between bulk powersources and the consumers’service-entrance equipments. Some electric utility distribution engineers,however, use a more limited definition of distribution as that portion of the utility system between thedistribution substations and the consumers’service-entrance equipment. In general, a typical distrib-ution system consists of (1) subtransmission circuits with voltage ratings usually between 12.47 and345 kV which deliver energy to the distribution substations, (2) distribution substations which convertthe energy to a lower
 primary system
voltage for local distribution and usually include facilities forvoltage regulation of the primary voltage, (3) primary circuits or
 feeders
, usually operating in therange of 4.16 to 34.5 kV and supplying the load in a well-defined geographic area, (4) distributiontransformers in ratings from 10 to 2500 kVA which may be installed on poles or grade-level pads orin underground vaults near the consumers and transform the primary voltages to utilization voltages,(5) secondary circuits at utilization voltage which carry the energy from the distribution transformeralong the street or rear-lot lines, and (6) service drops which deliver the energy from the secondaryto the user’s service-entrance equipment. Figures 18-1and 18-2depict the component parts of a typ-ical distribution system.Distribution investment constitutes 50% of the capital investment of a typical electric utility sys-tem. Recent trends away from generation expansion at many utilities have put increased emphasison distribution system development.The function of distribution is to receive electric power from large, bulk sources and to distributeit to consumers at voltage levels and with degrees of reliability that are appropriate to the varioustypes of users.For single-phase residential users, American National Standard Institute (ANSI) C84.1-1989defines
Voltage Range A
as 114/228 V to 126/252 V at the user’s service entrance and 110/220 V to126/252 V at the point of utilization. This allows for voltage drop in the consumer’s system. Nominalvoltage is 120/240 V. Within Range A utilization voltage, utilization equipment is designed and ratedto give fully satisfactory performance.As a practical matter, voltages above and below Range A do occur occasionally; however, ANSIC84.1 specifies that these conditions shall be limited in extent, frequency, and duration. When theydo occur, corrective measures shall be undertaken within a reasonable time to improve voltages tomeet Range A requirements.Rapid dips in voltage which cause incandescent-lamp “flicker” should be limited to 4% or 6%when they occur infrequently and 3% or 4% when they occur several times per hour. Frequent dips,such as those caused by elevators and industrial equipment, should be limited to 1
1
 / 
2
% or 2%.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.POWER DISTRIBUTION
 
POWER DISTRIBUTION
18-3
FIGURE 18-2
One-line diagram of typical primary distribution feeder.
Reliability of service can be described by factors such as frequency and duration of service inter-ruptions. While short and infrequent interruptions may be tolerated by residential and small com-mercial users, even a short interruption can be costly in the case of many industrial processes andcan be dangerous in the case of hospitals and public buildings. For such sensitive loads, special mea-sures are often taken to ensure an especially high level of reliability, such as redundancy in supplycircuits and/or supply equipment. Certain computer loads may be sensitive not only to interruptionsbut even to severe voltage dips and may require special power-supply systems which are virtuallyuninterruptible.From a system-planning and design point of view, the optimal choice of subtransmission voltageand system arrangement is closely interrelated with distribution substation size and with the primarydistribution voltage level. At any given time, the most economical arrangement is achieved when thesum of the subtransmission, substation, and primary feeder costs to serve an area is a minimum over
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.POWER DISTRIBUTION

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