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SECTION 11
ALTERNATE SOURCES
OF POWER
Mahan V. Aware
Electrical Engineering Department, Visvesvaraya National Institute Technology, Nagpur, India
Ramesh C. Bansal
Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology & Science,
Pilani (Rajasthan), India
Paul Butler
Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM
Palmer W. Carlin
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO
Raymond Fortuna
U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC
Neil B. Morley
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California,
Los Angeles, CA
Mark. S. Tillack
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Departyment
Robert D. Weaver
Consultant, Auburn, CA
Ahmed F. Zobaa
Electrical Power & Machines Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Charles P. (Sandy) Butterfield
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO
Michael Milligan
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO
Eduard Muljadi
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO
Karin Sinclair
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO
Yih-Huei Wan
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO
11-1

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.\ue000

Source: STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS
11-2
SECTION ELEVEN
CONTENTS

11.1 TRADITIONAL ENERGY SOURCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-3 11.1.1 Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-3 11.1.2 Crude Oil (Petroleum). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-3 11.1.3 Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-4 11.1.4 Hydro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-4 11.1.5 Nuclear Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-4

11.2 RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES. . . . . . . . . . . .11-5 11.2.1 Solar Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-5 11.2.2 Wind Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-6 11.2.3 Small Hydropower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-7 11.2.4 Biomass Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-8 11.2.5 Geothermal Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-8 11.2.6 Tidal Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-9 11.2.7 Magnetohydrodynamic Generation. . . . . . . . . . . .11-9 11.2.8 Ocean Thermal Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-10

BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-10
11.3 SOLAR ENERGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-11
11.3.1 Solar Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-11
11.3.2 Radiation Received at Earth\u2019s Surface . . . . . . . .11-11

11.3.3 Flat-Plate Collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-13 11.3.4 Collector Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-13 11.3.5 Heating with Solar Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-14 11.3.6 Solar Thermal-Conversion Plants. . . . . . . . . . . .11-15 11.3.7 Concentrating Collectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-16 11.3.8 Central and Distributed Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . .11-16 11.3.9 Solar Energy Facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-17

11.4 PHOTOVOLTAICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-18 11.4.1 Photovoltaic System Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-18 11.4.2 History of Photovoltaics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-19 11.4.3 The PV Power Market. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-19 11.4.4 Global PV Market. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-20 11.4.5 Common Photovoltaic Applications. . . . . . . . . .11-21 11.4.6 Glossary of Solar and Photovoltaic Terms. . . . . .11-22

11.5 WIND POWER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-23 11.5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-23 11.5.2 Contemporary Activity in the Wind Energy Field . .11-24 11.5.3 Wind Turbine Analysis and Description. . . . . . .11-24 11.5.4 Wind Turbine Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-26 11.5.5 Wind Turbine Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-27 11.5.6 The Wind Resource. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-29 11.5.7 Wind Turbine Electric Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-32 11.5.8 Controls and Control Algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . .11-33 11.5.9 Computer Simulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-34 11.5.10 Issues Related to Wind Turbine Use. . . . . . . . . .11-35 11.5.11 System Operation with Wind Power. . . . . . . . . .11-37 11.5.12 Wind Turbine Acoustic Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-39 11.5.13. Wildlife Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-39 11.5.14 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-40

BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-40 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-40 Additional Information Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-41 Periodical Publications and Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-41 Federal Wind Energy Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-42 Wind Energy Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-42 Conferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-42

11.6 GEOTHERMAL POWER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-42 11.6.1 Origin and Types of Geothermal Energy. . . . . . .11-42 11.6.2 Utilization of Geothermal Energy. . . . . . . . . . . .11-43 11.6.3 Exploration for Geothermal Energy. . . . . . . . . . .11-44

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.\ue000

ALTERNATE SOURCES OF POWER
ALTERNATE SOURCES OF POWER
11-3

11.6.4 Drilling for Geothermal Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . .11-45 11.6.5 Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. . . . . . . . . . .11-45 11.6.6 Research and Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-46 11.6.7 Economics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-47

BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-47

11.7 ENERGY STORAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-48 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-48 11.7.1 Electrochemical Energy Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . .11-49 11.7.2 Mechanical energy storages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-52 11.7.3 Thermal Energy Storage. ..................11-55 11.7.4 Electrical Energy Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-56 11.7.5 Economics of the Energy Storage Media. . . . . . .11-58

GLOSSARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-60
BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-60

11.8 BATTERIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-61 11.8.1 Principles of Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-61 11.8.2 Primary Batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-64 11.8.3 Secondary Batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-78

BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-86

11.9 FUEL CELLS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-86 11.9.1 General Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-86 11.9.2 Operation of Fuel Cells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-86 11.9.3 Major Components of the Fuel Cell. . . . . . . . . .11-87 11.9.4 General Performance Characteristics. . . . . . . . . .11-88 11.9.5 Fuel Cell Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-88 11.9.6 Low-Power Fuel Cell Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-91 11.9.7 Fuel Cell Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-96

11.10 MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-96 11.10.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-96 11.10.2 Basic Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-97 11.10.3 Liquid MHD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-103 11.10.4 Gaseous MHD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-116 11.10.5 2-Phase MHD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-124 11.10.6 Nomenclature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-126

REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-128
11.1 TRADITIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
BY RAMESH BANSAL

Electricity has been generated for the purpose of powering human needs for more than 120 years from various energy sources. The importance of dependable electricity generation was revealed when it became apparent that electricity was useful for providing heat, light, and power for human activities. Today, traditional (conventional) sources of power generation are fossil fuels (coal, petro- leum, natural gas), hydro and nuclear power systems.

11.1.1 Coal

The primary sources for coal are China, the United States, and the former USSR. These countries have 75% of the coal reserves. Coal was the first fossil fuel used for producing electricity. Electricity is pro- duced at a coal-fired fossil plant by the process of heating water in a boiler to about 540\ue001C to produce steam. The steam, under tremendous pressure of about 130 Kg/cm2, flows into a turbine, which spins a generator to produce electricity. Many environmental problems are associated with the use of coal including nitrous oxides, sulfur oxides, CO2, as well as particulate matter is released when coal is burned. Nitrous oxides and sulfur oxides cause acid rain and CO2 is responsible for global warming.

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.\ue000

ALTERNATE SOURCES OF POWER

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