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SECTION 21
INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL
APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRIC
POWER
Hesham Shaalan
Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY
CONTENTS
21.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-2
21.1.1
Links between Competitive Advantage, Efficiency
Improvement, and Environmental Compliance. . . .21-2
21.1.2
Environmental Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-3
21.2 TRENDS IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY ENERGY USE . . .21-5
21.2.1
Impact of Deregulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-5
21.2.2
Role of the Energy Service Company. . . . . . . . . .21-5
21.2.3
Retail Power-Supply Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-5
21.3 ELECTRICITY IN AGRICULTURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-6
21.3.1
Energy Use in Agriculture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-6
21.3.2
Technology Innovation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-6
21.3.3
Automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-7
21.3.4
Farm Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-7
21.3.5
Plant Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-8
21.3.6
Materials Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-9
21.3.7

Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-10 21.4 THE FOOD INDUSTRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-11 21.5 THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-12 21.6 THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-12

21.6.1
Oil Refineries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-13
21.6.2
Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-14
21.6.3
Emergency Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-15
21.6.4
Oil-Well Pumping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-15
21.6.5
Gas-Processing Plants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-17
21.6.6

Oil Pipelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-17 21.7 THE STEEL INDUSTRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-19 21.8 THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-23

21.8.1
Industrial Gases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-23
21.8.2
Industrial Inorganic Chemicals. . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-23
21.8.3
Manufactured Fibers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-24
21.9 THE PULP-AND-PAPER INDUSTRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-24
21.9.1
Industry Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-24
21.9.2
Pulp Mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-24
21.9.3
Paper and Paperboard Mills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-24
21.9.4
Power Distribution System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-25

21.10 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-25 21.10.1 Why Distributed Generation Is Used. . . . . . . . . .21-25 21.10.2 Distributed-Generation Technologies. . . . . . . . . .21-26

21-1
Most of the original material in this Section was developed by engineers at Resource Dynamics Corporation, Vienna, VA.

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.\ue000

Source: STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS

21.11 ELECTRIC MELTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-28
21.11.1 Process Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-28
21.11.2 Melting Pots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-29
21.11.3 Arc Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-30
21.11.4 Induction Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-34
21.11.5 Resistance Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-36
21.12 ELECTRIC HEATING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-37

21.12.1 Principles of Heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-37 21.12.2 Methods of Electric Heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-41 21.12.3 Electric Heating Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-42

21.13 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-48

21.14 ELECTRIC WELDING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-50 21.14.1 Resistance Welding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-50 21.14.2 Arc Welding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-51 21.14.3 Induction Welding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-56 21.14.4 Electron-Beam Welding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-56 21.14.5 Electroslag and Plasma Welding. . . . . . . . . . . . .21-57 21.14.6 Pressure Welding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-57

21.15 AIR CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION. . . . . . . .21-58 21.15.1 Air Conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-58 21.15.2 Refrigeration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-68

BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-75
21.1 INTRODUCTION
21.1.1 Links between Competitive Advantage, Efficiency Improvement,
and Environmental Compliance

Since the last edition of this handbook, a newly competitive environment is emerging in the industrial and commercial applications of electric power. While the areas of improving energy efficiency and meeting stricter environmental regulations is still a concern to business and industry, the need to main- tain a competitive edge in an increasingly global economy is having a definite impact on energy- related decisions. Technology investments are still being made in process and business enhancements, but the driving force is business economics. Producing goods and delivering services in a way that is \u201ccheaper, better, and faster\u201d is the goal of most competitive organizations. Technologies at the fore- front of improving business operations include sophisticated information and communications sys- tems, new sensors and control systems, and constantly improving electrotechnologies. The success of electrical engineering today will depend to a great degree on the extent to which the engineer under- stands this technological changes, and participates in the business decision making of the company. Nevertheless, the ultimate objective of any successful business is still to improve performance while cutting costs.

Sensors.From an electrical engineering perspective, sensors are an essential element in the opera-

tion and control of a manufacturing or other electricity-driven process. Sensors include all devices that respond to a physical, chemical, or biological stimulus and transmit a resulting impulse for mea- surement or control. Simple devices include electrochemical sensors that determine ionic or molec- ular concentration, potentiometric sensors that measure the potential difference between two electrodes, and amperometric sensors such as the Clark cell for measuring oxygen in some fluids

21-2
SECTION TWENTY-ONE

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.\ue000

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRIC POWER
INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRIC POWER
21-3
(see Sec. 24 for more details). In all cases, the sensor typically responds to a change in condition,
and converts the measured variable into an electric signal.

New advances in sensor technology encompass on-line machine diagnostics, remote and nonin- vasive detection, and improved durability in hostile environments. Sensors are used in industrial plants and mills to control process flows, assembly-line speeds, chemical concentration levels, and many other variables. A typical application of sensors is in industrial flexible manufacturing sys- tems, assemblies of one or more machine tools and workpiece-handling devices, inspection sensors, and part-washing equipment and/or material storage equipment, all operating in a coordinated man- ner under the control of a central or distributed computer. A flexible manufacturing system is employed to process a variety of finished parts (see Fig. 21-1). Commercial building facility man- agement systems include sensors for input data, remote-terminal units, the central processor, and human-machine interface devices. Functions typically go far beyond energy management, includ- ing not only heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), but also fire management, security, and access control.

Information and Communications Systems.The information and communications systems in a

plant or facility consist of collecting hardware, software, and input/output devices and connecting wire or cable that transmits voice and data, and then processing these data into information and knowledge for decision-making purposes. Improved communications systems are being developed based on high-speed data transfer and expanded application of voice recognition interface. This is the basis for emerging smart information systems that will take full advantage of language transla- tion, natural-language processing, artificial intelligence, storage and processing of only useful data, and interactive computer-based training.

Electrotechnologies.For the electrical engineer, the technologies that use electricity to manufac-
ture or transform a product are of special interest\u2014collectively, these technologies are known as
electrotechnologies. The industrial-commercial market continues to represent significant opportu-

nities for electrotechnologies, ranging from process heating to metal heating, cutting, and welding. In most electrotechnologies, electromagnetic, electrochemical, and/or electrothermal effects are central parts of the process. Examples of these technologies include induction heating and melting; plasma processing; infrared, microwave, and radio-frequency processing; freeze concentration; and electroseparation. Some of these technologies, such as infrared heating, also have natural-gas-fired alternatives.

A broad set of electrotechnologies includes electric motors, used in the commercial and indus- trial sectors to drive pumps, fans, and compressors for a wide range of applications. These applica- tions include HVAC applications, fluid processing, compressors to drive freeze concentration, and membrane separation. In the area of materials processing, motors furnish the power for cutting, grinding, and crushing. Finally, the raw materials and manufactured products are moved around the factory floor by motors driving conveyors, cranes, elevators, and robots.

21.1.2 Environmental Compliance

The environmental impact of the industrial and commercial applications of electric power has also rapidly become a primary concern in many industry sectors. Environmental concerns, many height- ened by more stringent laws and regulations, are widespread, including such problems as the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during solvent use for example, in industrial painting and cur- ing and disposal of oil-water emulsions, toxic wastes, and other industrial effluents. Mitigation of these problems is typically addressed with the \u201cTR3 approach\u201d\u2014treat, reduce, reuse, or recycle. For example, the generation of VOC emissions can be reduced (or eliminated) with the use of water-based paints or powder coatings combined with infrared drying. A parallel treatment option would include the use of solvent recovery heat pumps, or perhaps freeze concentration to separate VOCs from waste- water.

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)
Copyright \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.\ue000

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRIC POWER

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