E\ufb00ect of soil chemical properties on the remediation
of phenanthrene-contaminated soil
by electrokinetic-Fenton process
The electrokinetic-Fenton (EK-Fenton) remediation of soil contaminated with phenanthrene was studied. Two dif- ferent soils were chosen to investigate the e\ufb00ects of chemical properties, such as Fe oxide contents and acid soil bu\ufb00er capacity. The H2O2concentrations in pore water, the electrical potential distributions and the electrical currents were monitored to assess the electrochemical e\ufb00ect in relation to the soil properties. Hadong caly had high acid bu\ufb00er capac- ity, and thus the amount of electroosmotic \ufb02ow was lager in the experiment with Hadong clay than with EPK kaolin. The major mechanism of phenanthrene removal was a degradation in the experiment with EPK Kaolin, while it was a simple transport away from the system in experiment with Hadong clay. It was mainly because of the lower acid buf- fering capacity and better H2O2stability in case with EPK Kaolin than with Hadong clay.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic contaminants commonly found in subsurface (Warman, 1985). These chemicals not only result in tox- icity, but also are carcinogens and endocrine disrupters (Sullivan and Krieger, 1992). Because of their low solu-
Among various technologies employed for the reme- diation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals, Fenton process is one of the most widely used and stud- ied, in which hydroxyl radicals are produced by the reac- tion of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion. Hydroxyl radicals are non-speci\ufb01c oxidants that react with most organic contaminants at rates close to their theoretical limit, which is near the di\ufb00usion-controlled rate in water (109\u20131010M
Application of the modi\ufb01ed Fenton\u00d5s reagent has been e\ufb00ective in degrading contaminants and included the use of high concentrations of H2O2and iron oxides as catalysts (Tyre et al., 1991). Soil-bound contaminants are more resistant to oxidative attack during chemical treatments than contaminants in solution (Watts et al.,
on contaminant degradability can be minimized with high H2O2additions, which results in the generation of non-hydroxyl radical transient oxygen species, such as perhydroxyl radicals (HO
However, the modi\ufb01ed Fenton method has di\ufb03culties in treating heterogeneous subsurface environments that contains clayey soil with low permeability. Electrokinetic remediation of soil possessing low permeability repre- sents a technology for both heavy metals and organics removal (Hamed et al., 1991; Acar et al., 1992). Recently, it has been demonstrated that the removal e\ufb03ciency can be improved by combined application of an electrical \ufb01eld and supplementary reagents for organic removal (Yang and Long, 1999; Reddy and Saichek, 2003). An
innovative remediation technique known as the electr- okinetically enhanced in situ Fenton oxidation method (Yang and Long, 1999) employs a high H2O2concentra- tions as the anode purging solution, which demonstrates a potential to treat contaminants sorbed onto soils pos- sessing low permeability. The H2O2introduced from the anode chamber is transferred toward the cathode by electroosmotic \ufb02ow, which is accompanied by the decomposition of contaminants on the mineral surface, where the anions (O
anode due to electromigration (Fig. 1). The electrolysis of water produces hydrogen ions at the anode, which in turn generates an acid front, thus a\ufb00ects the contaminant remediation and H2O2stabilization, which may have direct in\ufb02uences from soil properties.
Thus the purpose of the present study is to examine the e\ufb00ect of soil chemical properties, such as bu\ufb00er capacity and iron contents, on the EK-Fenton process. A bench-scale experiments of the EK-Fenton process were conducted using two soils spiked with phenanthrene as the representative PAH and a low concentration acid (0.01 N H2SO4) as the anode purging solution for pH control. Electrical current, electrical potential distribu- tion and electroosmotic \ufb02ow, as well as the pH, were measured. The residual H2O2and phenanthrene concen- trations that existed in the soil at the end of each experi- ment were also detected.
The soils selected for the present study were EPK (Edger\u00d5s Plastic Kaolin from Florida) kaolin and Hadong clay. EPK kaolin was purchased from the
Feldspar Corporation and the Hadong clay was an actual soil in Hadong, Korea.Table 1 shows that the mineralogy, physical and chemical properties of these soils di\ufb00er signi\ufb01cantly. As seen in the table, the major mineral of EPK kaolin was kaolinite whereas the Hadong clay soil was largely composed of quartz, kaoli- nite and halloysite. The two soils had negligible amounts of organic carbon. The concentrations of extractable NO\u00c03and SO2\u00c0
concentration in the soil by de-ionized water, but the salts in the two soils were only in trace amount.
in di\ufb00erent forms, were determined by the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Commission of the European Communities Bureau of (Tokaliog\u02d8 lu
of Mn, and the Fe concentration in the EPK kaolin was higher than that in Hadong clay, while the concentration of Ca indicated contrary tendency.
trode chambers, an electrolyte reservoirs and a soil cell. The electrokinetic cell used for the tests was 8 cm in dia- meter and 20 cm long, and made of Plexiglas. Seven pas- sive electrodes were inserted into the soil cell and graphite electrodes of disk shape were placed in contact with the chambers. The electrodes were located at each end of the cell so that the electrolyte solution was only in contact with one face of each electrode. A \ufb01lter paper was placed at the end of the soil cell. Each electrolyte chamber occu- pied the space between a porous stone and an electrode. PVC valves were used to control the in\ufb02ow and out\ufb02ow of the solution. The inlet at the bottom of the anode cham- ber was connected to a reservoir containing 2000 ml of
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