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14-Salam and Istisna

14-Salam and Istisna

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Published by: ✬ SHANZA MALIK ✬ on Nov 10, 2011
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Lecture # 14Salam and Istisna
 Rabb-us-salam : BuyerMuslam ilaih : SellerRa's-ul-maal : Cash priceMuslam fih : Purchased commodityThis mode of financing can be used by the modern banks and financial institutionsespecially to finance the agricultural sector. InSalam, the seller undertakes to supplyspecific goods to the buyer at a future date in exchange of an advanced price fully paid atspot. The price is in cash but the supply of purchased goods is deferred.
Purpose of use:
 To meet the need of small farmers who need money to grow their crops and to feed theirfamily up to the time of harvest. When Allah declaredRibaharam, the farmers could nottake usurious loans. Therefore Holy Prophet allowed them to sell their agriculturalproducts in advance.To meet the need of traders for import and export business. Under Salam, it is allowed forthem that they sell the goods in advance so that after receiving their cash price, they caneasily undertake the aforesaid business. Salam is beneficial to the seller because hereceived the price in advance and it was beneficial to the buyer also because normally theprice in Salam is lower than the price in spot sales.The permissibility of Salam is an exception to the general rule that prohibits forward saleand therefore it is subject to strict conditions, which are as follows:
Conditions of Salam:
It is necessary for the validity of Salam that the buyer pays the price in full to the sellerat the time of effecting the sale. In the absence of full payment, it will be tantamount tosale of a debt against a debt, which is expressly prohibited by the Holy Prophet .Moreover the basic wisdom for allowing Salam is to fulfill the "instant need" of theseller. If its not paid in full, the basic purpose will not be achieved.
Only those goods can be sold through a Salam contract in which the quantity andquality can be exactly specified eg. precious stones cannot be sold on the basis of Salambecause each stone differ in quality, size, weight and their exact specification is notpossible.
Salam cannot be effected on a particular commodity or on a product of a particularfield or farm eg. Supply of wheat of a particular field or the fruit of a particular tree sincethere is a possibility that the crop is destroyed before delivery and given such possibility,the delivery remains uncertain.
All details in respect to quality of goods sold must be expressly specified leaving noambiguity, which may lead to a dispute.
It is necessary that the quantity of the commodity is agreed upon in absolute terms. Itshould be measured or weighed in its usual measure only, meaning what is normallyweighed cannot be quantified and vice versa.
The exact date and place of delivery must be specified in the contract.
Salam cannot be effected in respect of things, which must be delivered at spot.
The commodity for Salam contract should remain in the market right from the day of contract up to the date of delivery or at least till the date of delivery.
The time of delivery should be at least fifteen days or one month from the date of agreement. Price in Salam is generally lower than the price in spot sale. The periodshould be long enough to affect prices. But HanafiFiqhdid not specify any minimumperiod for the validity of Salam. It is all right to have an earlier date of delivery if theseller consents to it.
Since price in Salam is generally lower than the price in spot sale; the difference inthe two prices may be a valid profit for the Bank.
A security in the form of a guarantee, mortgage or hypothecation may be required fora Salam in order to ensure that the seller delivers.
The seller at the time of delivery delivers commodities and not money to the buyerwho would have to establish a special cell for dealing in commodities.
 There are two ways of benefiting from the contract of Salam:After purchasing a commodity by way of Salam, the financial institution can sellit through a parallel contract of Salam for the same date of delivery. The period of Salam in the second parallel contract is shorter and the price is higher than thefirst contract. The difference between the two prices shall be the profit earned bythe institution. The shorter the period of Salam, the higher the price and thegreater the profit. In this way institutions can manage their short term financingportfolios.The institution can obtain a promise to purchase from a third party. This promiseshould be unilateral from the expected buyer. The buyer does not have to pay the
price in advance. When the institution receives the commodity, it can sell it at apre-determined price to a third party according to the terms of the promise.
Parallel Salam
In an arrangement of parallel Salam there must be two different and independentcontracts; one where the bank is a buyer and the other in which it is a seller. The twocontracts cannot be tied up and performance of one should not be contingent on the other.For example, if 'A' has purchased from 'B' 1000 bags of wheat by way of Salam to bedelivered on 31 December, 'A' can contract a parallel Salam with 'C' to deliver to him1000 bags of wheat on 31 December. But while contracting Parallel Salam with 'C', thedelivery of wheat to 'C' cannot be conditioned with taking delivery from 'B'. Therefore,even if 'B' did not deliver wheat on 31 December, 'A' is duty bound to deliver 1000 bagsof wheat to 'C'. He can seek whatever recourse he has against 'B', but he cannot ridhimself from his liability to deliver wheat to 'C'. Similarly, if 'B' has delivered defectivegoods, which do not conform to the agreed specifications, 'A' is still obligated to deliverthe goods to 'C' according to the specifications agreed with him.
A Salam arrangement cannot be used as a buy back facility where the seller in the firstcontract is also the purchaser in the second. Even if the purchaser in the second contractis a separate legal entity, but owned by the seller in the first contract; it would nottantamount to a valid parallel Salam agreement. For example, 'A' has purchased 1000bags of wheat by way of Salam from 'B' - a joint stock company. 'B' has a subsidiary 'C',which is a separate legal entity but is fully owned by 'B'. 'A' cannot contract the parallelSalam with 'C'. However, if 'C' is not wholly owned by 'B', 'A' can contract parallel Salamwith it, even if some share-holders are common between 'B' and 'C'.
Istisna' is a sale transaction where a commodity is transacted before it comes intoexistence. It is an order to a manufacturer to manufacture a specific commodity for thepurchaser. The manufacturer uses his own material to manufacture the required goods.In Istisna', price must be fixed with consent of all parties involved. All other necessaryspecifications of the commodity must also be fully settled.
Cancellation of contract:
 After giving prior notice, either party can cancel the contract before the manufacturingparty has begun its work. Once the work starts, the contract cannot be cancelledunilaterally.
Difference between Istisna' and Salam
Istisna' / Salam

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