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Tannins2

Tannins2

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Published by Arslan Abdullah

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Published by: Arslan Abdullah on Nov 10, 2011
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Pharmacognosy By Sir Tanveer Khan 
Lecture: Tannins
Compiled By >>>
 
1 
TANNINS
Introduction
 
The term tannin was first time coined by
Seguin
in 1796. This term was used todenote substances present in plant extract which react with protein of animal hide,prevent their putrefaction (
 process of decay of organic materials
) and convert hideand skin into leather.
Definition
 
“Complex substances that usually occur as mixtures of polyphenols that are very
difficult to separate since they don't crystallize, are c
alled tannins.”
 OR
“Tannins are polyhydroxy phenolic compounds.”
 
Physical Properties
 
Color:
Dark brown or reddish brown
Taste:
Puckering taste
State:
Non-crystalline
Solubility:
Soluble in water, alcohol, dilute alkalis, glycerols and acetone.
Chemical properties
 
(i)
 
Precipitation(ii)
 
 Anti-oxidizing properties(iii)
 
 Astringent(iv)
 
Carcinogenicity(v)
 
Reaction with salts(vi)
 
Reaction with potassium ferricyanide and ammonia
(i) Precipitation:
 Tannins have ability to precipitate solutions of;
 
Gelatin.
 
 Alkaloids.
 
Glycosides.
 
Heavy metals.
 
Proteins.
(ii) Anti-oxidizing properties:
Because of accumulation of OH group on small size nucleus, these agents haveanti-oxidant nature.
 
Pharmacognosy By Sir Tanveer Khan 
Lecture: Tannins
Compiled By >>>
 
2 
(iii) Astringent:
 Tannins have property to react with protein of mucous membrane and causeprecipitation
(iv) Carcinogenicity:
 Prolong use of tannin containing plant material is hazardous because it causescancer. Habitual use of Areca catechu can cause oral and esophageal cancer.
(v) Reaction with Salts:
 
(vi) Reaction with Potassium ferricyanide and Ammonia:
Importance of Tannins
 
 
Medicinal Uses:
 
 
 Antidote.
 
 Antiseptic.
 
 Algicidals.
 
 Astringents.
 
 Anti-carcinogenic.
 
Industrial Uses:
 
 
Ink manufacture.
 
 Vegetable tanning.
 
Preservatives.
 
Biological Activities:
 
 
Inhibition of lipid per oxidation.
 
Decrease in blood urea nitrogen content.
 
Inhibition of plasmin.
 
Lipolysis in fat cells.
 
Pharmacognosy By Sir Tanveer Khan 
Lecture: Tannins
Compiled By >>>
 
3 
Chemical Classification
 
Based on identity of phenolic nuclei involved and on the way they are joined.
(i) Hydrolysable Tannins:
 These tannins are hydrolyzed by enzymes or acids.
 
Precursors:
 
 
Phenolic acid (Gallic acid, Ellagic acid)
 
Glucose residue
 
Between phenolic acids and glucose sugar, there is ester linkage.
 
Properties:
 
Types:
 
Tannins
 Hydrolysable
tannins
Condensed 
tannins
Complex
tannins
HydrolysabletanninsGallitanninsEllagitannins

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