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Calculator

Calculator

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Published by Aman Khera

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Published by: Aman Khera on Nov 10, 2011
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05/01/2012

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CALCULATORS
Amandeep Singh
 Abstract
: -
In this paper, a general calculator is discussed for arithmetic operation. The displaying technologyused in this paper is
seven segment display and the internal structure is based on IC’s.
 The analysis of internal working of calculator has been done with block diagram as well as with internal structure.Impact of calculator technology is discussed. Its comparison with computers is done.
Index Terms: -
DIL (dual in line), SIL (single in line), ALU, BCD, Adder, Subtractor.
 
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1. INTRODUCTION
A calculator is a small, portable, usuallyinexpensive electronic device used toperform the basic operations of arithmetic. Modern calculators are more portable thanmostcomputers,though mostPDAsare comparable in size to handheld calculators.Pocket-sized devices become available inthe 1970s, especially after theinvention of microprocessordeveloped serendipitouslybyIntelfor aBusicomcalculator. Modern electronic calculators vary fromcheap, give-away, credit-card sized modelsto sturdy desktop models with built-inprinters. They became popular in the mid1970's asintegrated circuitsmade their sizeand cost small. By the end of that decade,calculator prices had reduced to a pointwhere a basic calculator was affordable tomost and they became common in schools.In addition to general purpose calculators,there are those designed for specificmarkets; for example, there arescientificcalculatorswhichincludetrigonometricandstatisticalcalculat ions. Some calculators even have the abilityto docomputer algebra.Graphingcalculatorscan be used to graph functionsdefined on the real line, or higherdimensionalEuclidean space. In 1986, calculators still represented anestimated 41% of the
world’s general
 purpose hardware capacity to computeinformation. This diminished to less than0.05% by 2007.
 
 
2. HISTORY OF CALCULATOR
The idea of calculator came from thearithmetic calculation Abacus. We had towait until the 19th century and theIndustrialRevolutionto see a real and quick development and diffusion of addingmachines and mechanical calculators. Thesetwo devices (2-operations and 4-operationsmachines) were considered absolutelydifferent since the origin until 1950s.
 
But itwasn't until 1902 that the familiar push-button user interface was developed, withthe introduction of the Dalton AddingMachine, developed by James L. Dalto.
 
TheCurta calculatorwas developed in 1948and, although costly, became popular for itsportability. This purely mechanical hand-held device could do addition, subtraction,multiplication and division TheCurtacalculatorwas developed in 1948 and,although costly, became popular for itsportability. This purely mechanical hand-held device could do addition, subtraction,multiplication and division.In 1940s to 1970s came the development of electronic calculator by using vacuum tubesand transistors in logic circuits. The maininvention during this period was theworld's first all-electronic desktop calculatorANITA (A New Inspiration ToArithmetic/Accounting).This machine usedvacuum tubes, cold-cathode tubes andDekatrons in its circuits, with 12 cold-
cathode “Nixie” tubes for its display.
 The first handheld calculator was developedbyTexas Instrumentsin 1967. It could add,multiply, subtract, and divide, and its outputdevice was a paper tape.In 1970s to mid 1980s the calculators werelarge
 
and heavy desktop machines due totheir use of hundreds of transistorsonseveral circuit boards with a large powerconsumption that required an AC powersupply. There were great efforts to put thelogic required for a calculator into fewer andfewerintegrated circuits(chips) andcalculator electronics was one of the leadingedges of semiconductordevelopment. U.S.semiconductor manufacturers led the worldin Large Scale Integration (LSI)semiconductor development, squeezingmore and more functions into individualintegrated circuits.In this period came many pocket calculatorslikeSharpQT-8Bby Canon Pocketronic together withdevelopments in display technology (such asthevacuum fluorescent display,LED,  andLCD), lead within a few years to thecheap pocket calculator available to all.The first American-made pocket-sizedcalculator, the Bowmar 901B, measuring5.2 × 3.0 × 1.5 in, came out in the fall of 1971, with four functions and an eight-digitredLEDdisplay, for $240, while in August1972 the four-functionSinclairExecutivebecame the first slimline pocketcalculator measuring 5.4 × 2.2 × 0.35in andweighing 2.5 oz (70g). It retailed for around
 
$150 (£79). By the end of the decade,similar calculators were priced less than $10(£5).
Internal circuit with twelve Nixie tube display elements inside a1960s desktop calculator
Then came the programmable calculators
 
allow the user to write and storeprogramsinthe calculator in order to solve difficultproblems or automate an elaborateprocedure.Programming capability appears mostcommonly (although not exclusively)ingraphing calculators,as the larger screenallows multiple lines of source codeto beviewed simultaneously (i.e., without havingtoscrollto the next/previous display line).Originally, calculator programming had tobe done in the calculator's own commandlanguage, but ascalculatorhackersdiscovered ways tobypass the main interface of the calculatorsand writeassembly languageprograms,calculator companies (particularlyTexasInstruments)began to support native-modeprogramming on their calculator hardware,first revealing the hooks used to enable suchcode to operate, and later explicitly buildingin facilities to handle such programs directlyfrom the user interface.The first calculator capable of symboliccomputation was theHP-28C, released in1987. It was able to, for example, solvequadratic equations symbolically. Thefirstgraphing calculatorwas theCasioFX- 7000Greleased in 1985.The two leading manufacturers, HP and TI,released increasingly feature-ladencalculators during the 1980s and 1990s. Atthe turn of the millennium, the line betweena graphing calculator and ahandheldcomputerwas not always clear, as somevery advanced calculators such as theTI-89, theVoyage200andHPg49Gcoulddifferentiateandinte gratefunctions,solvedifferential equations,  runword processingandPIMsoftware, and connect by wire orIRto othercalculators/computers.TheHP 12cfinancial calculator is stillproduced. It was introduced in 1981 and isstill being made with few changes. The HP12c featured thereverse Polishnotationmode of data entry. In 2003 severalnew models were released, including an

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