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Cmm&Sixsigma

Cmm&Sixsigma

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05/09/2014

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What is CMM (SEI Capability Maturity Model)?

According to the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, CMM is a common- sense application of software or business process management and quality improvement concepts to software development and maintenance. Its a community-developed guide for evolving towards a culture of engineering excellence, model for organizational improvement. The underlying structure for reliable and consistent software process assessments and software capability evaluations.

The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM) is a framework that describes the key elements of an effective software process. There are CMMs for non software processes as well, such as Business Process Management (BPM). The CMM describes an evolutionary improvement path from an ad hoc, immature process to a mature, disciplined process. The CMM covers practices for planning, engineering, and managing software development and maintenance. When followed, these key practices improve the ability of organizations to meet goals for cost, schedule, functionality, and product quality. TheCMM establishes a yardstick against which it is possible to judge, in a repeatable way, the maturity of an organization's software process and compare it to the state of the practice of the industry. The CMM can also be used by an organization to plan improvements to its software process. It also reflects the needs of individuals performing software process, improvement, software process assessments, or software capability evaluations; is documented; and is publicly available.

The Five Maturity Levels described by the Capability Maturity Model can be characterized as per
their primary process changes made at each level as follows:
1) Initial The software process is characterized as ad hoc, and occasionally even chaotic. Few
processes
are
defined,
and
success
depends
on
individual
effort
and

heroics. 2) Repeatable Basic project management processes are established to track cost, schedule, and functionality. The necessary process discipline is in place to repeat earlier successes on projects with similar

applications. 3) Defined The software process for both management and engineering activities is documented, standardized, and integrated into a standard software process for the organization. All projects use an approved, tailored version of the organization's standard software process for developing and maintaining

software. 4) Managed Detailed measures of the software process and product quality are collected. Both the software

process
and
products
are
quantitatively
understood
and

controlled. 5) Optimizing Continuous process improvement is enabled by quantitative feedback from the process

and
from
piloting
innovative
ideas
and
technologies.
The
structure
of
the
Capability
Maturity
model
is
as
shown
below:

At the Optimizing Level or the CMM level5, the entire organization is focused on continuous Quantitative feedback from previous projects is used to improve the project management, usually using pilot projects, using the skills shown in level 4. The focus is on continuous process improvement.

Software project teams in SEI CMM Level 5 organizations analyze defects to determine their causes. Software processes are evaluated to prevent known types of defects from recurring, and lessons learned are disseminated to other projects. The software process capability of Level 5 organizations can be characterized as continuously improving because Level 5 organizations are continuously striving to improve the range of their process capability, thereby improving the process performance of their projects. Improvement occurs both by incremental advancements in the existing process and by innovations using new technologies and methods.

Previously known as Key Process Area (KPA)

A process area (PA) contains the goals that must be reached in order to improve a software process. A PA is said to be satisfied when procedures are in place to reach the corresponding goals. A software organization has achieved a specific maturity level once all the corresponding PAs are satisfied. The process areas (PA's) have the following features:

1) Identify a cluster of related activities that, when performed collectively, achieve a set of goals

considered important for enhancing process capability.
2) Defined to reside at a single maturity level.
3) Identify the issues that must be addressed to achieve a maturity level.

The different maturity levels have different process areas pre-defined as shown in the figure above.
The SEI CMMI Level 5 has 3 PA's defined:
\u2022
Process change management: To identify the causes of defects and prevent them from recurring.
\u2022
Technology change management: To identify beneficial new technology and transfer them in an
orderly manner
\u2022
Defect prevention: To continually improve the process to improve quality, increase productivity,
and decrease development time.

The purpose of Process Change Management is to continually improve the software processes used in the organization with the intent of improving software quality, increasing productivity, and decreasing the cycle time for product development. When software process improvements are approved for normal practice, the organization's standard software process and the projects' defined software processes are revised as suited.

The goals sought to achieve are as follows:

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