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Published by: api-3751998 on Oct 18, 2008
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Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng I.
C\ue000UT\ue001O NGUY\u00caN T\ue002 \u2013 H\ue003 TH\ue004NG TU\ue005N HO\u00c0N C\u00c1C NGUY\u00caN T\ue004
I. C\ue000u t\ue001o nguy\u00ean t\ue002.
Nguy\u00ean t\ue000 g\ue001m h\ue002t nh\u00e2n t\u00edch\ue003i\ue004n d\u01b0\u01a1ng (Z+)\ue005 t\u00e2m v\u00e0 c\u00f3 Z electron chuy\ue006n\ue003\ue007ng
xung quanh h\ue002t nh\u00e2n.
1. H\ue000t nh\u00e2n: H\ue002t nh\u00e2n g\ue001m:
\u2212Proton:\ue008i\ue004n t\u00edch 1+, kh\ue009i l\u01b0\ue00ang b\ue00bng 1\ue003.v.C, k\u00fd hi\ue004u (ch\ue00c s\ue009 ghi tr\u00ean l\u00e0 kh\ue009i
l\u01b0\ue00ang, ch\ue00c s\ue009 ghi d\u01b0\ue00di l\u00e0\ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch).
\u2212N\u01a1tron: Kh\u00f4ng mang\ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch, kh\ue009i l\u01b0\ue00ang b\ue00bng 1\ue003.v.C k\u00fd hi\ue004u
Nh\u01b0 v\ue00ey, \ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch Z c\ue005a h\ue001t nh\u00e2n b\ue006ng t\ue007ng s\ue008pr ot on.

* Kh\ue008i l\u01b0\ue009ng c\ue005a h\ue001t nh\u00e2n coi nh\u01b0 b\ue006ng kh\ue008i l\u01b0\ue009ng c\ue005a nguy\u00ean t\ue002 (v\u00ec kh\ue009i l\u01b0\ue00ang c\ue00fa electron nh\ue010 kh\u00f4ng\ue003\u00e1ng k\ue006) b\ue00bng t\ue011ng s\ue009 proton (k\u00fd hi\ue004u l\u00e0 Z) v\u00e0 s\ue009 n\u01a1tron (k\u00fd hi\ue004u l\u00e0 N):

Z + N\u2248 A.
A\ue003\u01b0\ue00ac g\ue012i l\u00e0 s\ue008 kh\ue008i.
* C\u00e1c d\ue001ng\ue003\ue00ang v\ue00b kh\u00e1c nhau c\ue00fa m\ue007t nguy\u00ean t\ue009 l\u00e0 nh\ue013ng d\ue002ng nguy\u00ean t\ue000 kh\u00e1c
nhau c\u00f3 c\u00f9ng s\ue008 proton nh\u01b0ng kh\u00e1c s\ue008 n\u01a1tron trong h\ue001t nh\u00e2n, do\ue003\u00f3 c\u00f3 c\u00f9ng\ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch
h\ue001t nh\u00e2n nh\u01b0ng kh\u00e1c nhau v\ue014 kh\ue009i l\u01b0\ue00ang nguy\u00ean t\ue000, t\ue015c l\u00e0 s\ue008 kh\ue008i A kh\u00e1c nhau.
2. Ph\ue001n\ue002ng h\ue003t nh\u00e2n:Ph\ue016n\ue015ng h\ue002t nh\u00e2n l\u00e0 qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh l\u00e0m bi\ue017n\ue003\ue011i nh\ue013ng h\ue002t nh\u00e2n
c\ue00fa nguy\u00ean t\ue009 n\u00e0y th\u00e0nh h\ue002t nh\u00e2n c\ue00fa nh\ue013ng nguy\u00ean t\ue009 kh\u00e1c.
Trong ph\ue016n\ue015ng h\ue002t nh\u00e2n, t\ue007ng s\ue008 proton v\u00e0 t\ue007ng s\ue008 kh\ue008i lu\u00f4n\ue003\u01b0 \ue009c b\ue00co to\u00e0n.
V\u00ed d\ue00d:
V\ue00ey X l\u00e0 C. Ph\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh ph\ue016n\ue015ng h\ue002t nh\u00e2n.
3. C\ue004u t\ue003o v\ue005 electron c\ue006a nguy\u00ean t\ue007.
Nguy\u00ean t\ue000 l\u00e0 h\ue004 trung ho\u00e0\ue003i\ue004n, n\u00ean s\ue008 electron chuy\ue00en\ue003\ue00fng xung quanh h\ue001t nh\u00e2n
b\ue006ng s\ue008\ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch d\u01b0\u01a1ng Z c\ue005a h\ue001t nh\u00e2n.

C\u00e1c electron trong nguy\u00ean t\ue000 \ue003\u01b0\ue00ac chia th\u00e0nh c\u00e1c l\ue00dp, ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp, obitan.
a) C\u00e1c l\ue010p electron. K\ue006 t\ue018 ph\u00eda h\ue002t nh\u00e2n tr\ue005 ra\ue003\u01b0 \ue00ac k\u00fd hi\ue004u:
B\ue00bng s\ue009 th\ue015 t\ue019 n = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 \u2026

B\ue00bng ch\ue013 t\u01b0\u01a1ng\ue015ng: K L M N O P Q \u2026

Nh\ue013ng electron thu\ue007c c\u00f9ng m\ue007t l\ue00dp c\u00f3 n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang g\ue01an b\ue00bng nhau. L\ue00dp electron c\u00e0ng g\ue01an h\ue002t nh\u00e2n c\u00f3 m\ue015c n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang c\u00e0ng th\ue01bp, v\u00ec v\ue00ey l\ue00dp K c\u00f3 n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang th\ue01bp nh\ue01bt.

S\ue009 electron t\ue009i\ue003a c\u00f3 trong l\ue00dp th\ue015 n b\ue00bng 2n2. C\ue01c th\ue006 s\ue009 electron t\ue009i\ue003a trong c\u00e1c
l\ue00dp nh\u01b0 sau:
L\ue00dp :
K L M N\u2026
S\ue009 electron t\ue009i\ue003a: 2 8 18 32 \u2026
b) C\u00e1c ph\u00e2n l\ue010p electron. C\u00e1c electron trong c\u00f9ng m\ue007t l\ue00dp l\ue002i\ue003\u01b0\ue00ac chia th\u00e0nh c\u00e1c
ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp.
L\ue00dp th\ue015 n c\u00f3 n ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp, c\u00e1c ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp\ue003\u01b0\ue00ac k\u00fd hi\ue004u b\ue00bng ch\ue013 : s, p, d, f, \u2026 k\ue006 t\ue018
h\ue002t nh\u00e2n tr\ue005 ra. C\u00e1c electron trong c\u00f9ng ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp c\u00f3 n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang b\ue00bng nhau.
L\ue00dp K (n = 1) c\u00f3 1 ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp : 1s.

L\ue00dp L (n = 2) c\u00f3 2 ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp : 2s, 2p.
L\ue00dp M (n = 3) c\u00f3 3 ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp :3s, 3p, 3d.
L\ue00dp N (n = 4) c\u00f3 4 ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp : 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f.

Th\ue015 t\ue019 m\ue015c n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang c\ue00fa c\u00e1c ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp x\ue017p theo chi\ue014u t\u0103ng d\ue01an nh\u01b0 sau : 1s,

2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s\u2026
S\ue009 electron t\ue009i\ue003a c\ue00fa c\u00e1c ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp nh\u01b0 sau:
Ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp : s p d f.
S\ue009 electron t\ue009i\ue003a: 2 6 10 14.

c) Obitan nguy\u00ean t\ue002: l\u00e0 khu v\ue011c kh\u00f4ng gian xung quanh h\ue001t nh\u00e2n m\u00e0\ue012\ue003\u00f3 kh\ue00c n\u0103ng
c\u00f3 m\ue013t electron l\u00e0 l\ue010n nh\ue000t (khu v\ue019c c\u00f3 m\ue00et \ue003\ue007 \ue003\u00e1m m\u00e2y electron l\ue00dn nh\ue01bt).

S\ue009 v\u00e0 d\ue002ng obitan ph\ue01c thu\ue007c\ue003\ue01dc\ue003i\ue006m m\ue01ei ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp electron.
Ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp s c\u00f3 1 obitan d\ue002ng h\u00ecnh c\ue01au.
Ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp p c\u00f3 3 obitan d\ue002ng h\u00ecnh s\ue009 8 n\ue011i.
Ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp d c\u00f3 5 obitan, ph\u00e2n l\ue00dp f c\u00f3 7 obitan. Obitan d v\u00e0 f c\u00f3 d\ue002ng ph\ue015c t\ue002p h\u01a1n.

M\ue014i obitan ch\ue015 ch\ue016a t\ue008i\ue003a 2 electron c\u00f3 spin ng\u01b0\ue009c nhau. M\ue01ei obitan\ue003\u01b0\ue00ac k\u00fd hi\ue004u
b\ue00bng 1 \u00f4 vu\u00f4ng
(c\u00f2n g\ue012i l\u00e0 \u00f4 l\u01b0\ue00ang t\ue000), trong\ue003\u00f3 n\ue017u ch\ue00c c\u00f3 1 electron
ta g\ue012i\ue003\u00f3
l\u00e0 electron\ue003\ue007c th\u00e2n, n\ue017u\ue003\ue00f 2 electron
ta g\ue012i c\u00e1c electron\ue003\u00e3 gh\u00e9p\ue003\u00f4i. Obitan
kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 electron g\ue012i l\u00e0 obitan tr\ue009ng.
4. C\ue004u h\u00ecnh electron v\u00e0 s\ue008 ph\u00e2n b\ue009 electron theo obitan.
a)Nguy\u00ean l\u00fd v\ue017ng b\ue018n: trong nguy\u00ean t\ue002, c\u00e1c electron l\ue019n l\u01b0\ue009t chi\ue01am c\u00e1c m\ue016c n\u0103ng
l\u01b0\ue009ng t\ue01b th\ue000p\ue003\ue01an cao.
V\u00ed d\ue00d: Vi\ue017t c\ue01bu h\u00ecnh electron c\ue00fa Fe (Z = 26).

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6 4s2
N\ue017u vi\ue017t theo th\ue016 t\ue011 c\u00e1c m\ue016c n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue009ng th\u00ec c\ue01bu h\u00ecnh tr\u00ean c\u00f3 d\ue002ng.
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6

Tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\ue005 c\ue01bu h\u00ecnh electron c\ue00fa nguy\u00ean t\ue009, ta d\ue01f d\u00e0ng vi\ue017t c\ue01bu h\u00ecnh electron c\ue00fa
cation ho\ue01dc anion t\ue002o ra t\ue018 nguy\u00ean t\ue000 c\ue00fa nguy\u00ean t\ue009 \ue003\u00f3.
V\u00ed d\ue00d: C\ue01bu h\u00ecnh electron c\ue00fa
Fe2+ : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6
Fe3+ : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5.
\ue008\ue009i v\ue00dia ni on th\u00ec th\u00eam v\u00e0o l\ue00dp ngo\u00e0i c\u00f9ng s\ue009 electron m\u00e0 nguy\u00ean t\ue009 \ue003\u00e3 nh\ue00en.
V\u00ed d\ue00d:
S(Z = 16) : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4.
S2- : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
C\ue01an hi\ue006u r\ue00bng : electron l\ue010p ngo\u00e0i c\u00f9ng theo c\ue000u h\u00ecnh electron ch\ue016 kh\u00f4ng theo m\ue016c
n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue009ng.
5. N\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang ion ho\u00e1, \u00e1i l\ue008c v\ue00bi electron,\ue00c\ue00d \u00e2m\ue00ci\ue00en.

a)N\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue009ng ion ho\u00e1 (I). N\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang ion ho\u00e1 l\u00e0 n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang c\ue01an ti\u00eau th\ue01c \ue003\ue006 t\u00e1ch 1e ra kh\ue010i nguy\u00ean t\ue000 v\u00e0 bi\ue017n nguy\u00ean t\ue000 th\u00e0nh ion d\u01b0\u01a1ng. Nguy\u00ean t\ue000 c\u00e0ng d\ue01f nh\u01b0\ue020ng e (t\u00ednh kim lo\ue002i c\u00e0ng m\ue002nh) th\u00ec I c\u00f3 tr\ue021 s\ue009 c\u00e0ng nh\ue010.

b)\u00c1i l\ue011c v\ue010i electron (E). \u00c1i l\ue019c v\ue00di electron l\u00e0 n\u0103ng l\u01b0\ue00ang gi\ue016i ph\u00f3ng khi k\ue017t h\ue00ap 1e v\u00e0o nguy\u00ean t\ue000, bi\ue017n nguy\u00ean t\ue000 th\u00e0nh ion \u00e2m. Nguy\u00ean t\ue000 c\u00f3 kh\ue016 n\u0103ng thu e c\u00e0ng m\ue002nh (t\u00ednh phi kim c\u00e0ng m\ue002nh) th\u00ec E c\u00f3 tr\ue021 s\ue009 c\u00e0ng l\ue00dn.

c)\ue01c\ue00f \u00e2m \ue003i\ue004n (\u03c7).\ue01c\ue00f\u00e2m \ue003i\ue004n l\u00e0 \ue003\ue001i l\u01b0\ue009ng \ue003\ue013c tr\u01b0ng cho kh\ue00cn\u0103ng h\u00fat c\ue013p
electron li\u00ean k\ue01at c\ue005a m\ue00ft nguy\u00ean t\ue002 trong ph\u00e2n t\ue002.
\ue008\ue007\u00e2m \ue003i\ue004n \ue003\u01b0\ue00ac t\u00ednh t\ue018 I v\u00e0 E theo c\u00f4ng th\ue015c:
\u2212Nguy\u00ean t\ue009 c\u00f3 \u03c7c\u00e0ng l\ue00dn th\u00ec nguy\u00ean t\ue000 c\ue00fa n\u00f3 c\u00f3 kh\ue016 n\u0103ng h\u00fat c\ue01dp e li\u00ean k\ue017t
c\u00e0ng m\ue002nh.
\u2212 \ue008\ue007\u00e2m \ue003i\ue004n \u03c7th\u01b0\ue020ng d\u00f9ng\ue003\ue006 ti\u00ean\ue003o\u00e1n m\ue015c\ue003\ue007 ph\u00e2n c\ue019c c\ue00fa li\u00ean k\ue017t v\u00e0 x\u00e9t c\u00e1c
hi\ue004u\ue015ng d\ue021ch chuy\ue006n electron trong ph\u00e2n t\ue000.
\u2212 N\ue017u hai nguy\u00ean t\ue000 c\u00f3 \u03c7b\ue006ng nhau s\ue015 t\ue001o th\u00e0nh li\u00ean k\ue013t c\ue00cng ho\u00e1 tr\ue00a thu\ue012n tu\u00fd. N\ue017 u
\ue003\ue007\u00e2m \ue003i\ue004n kh\u00e1c nhau nhi\ue011u (\u03c7\u2206 > 1,7) s\ue022t\ue002o th\u00e0nh li\u00ean k\ue017t ion. N\ue017u \ue003\ue007\u00e2m \ue003i\ue004n kh\u00e1c
nhau kh\u00f4ng nhi\ue014u (0 <\u03c7\u2206 < 1,7) s\ue022 t\ue002o th\u00e0nh li\u00ean k\ue013t c\ue00cng ho\u00e1 tr\ue00a c\u00f3 c\ue00ec.
II. H\ue000 th\ue001ng tu\ue002n ho\u00e0n c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\ue001 ho\u00e1 h\ue003c.
1.\ue008\ue021nh lu\ue00et tu\ue01an ho\u00e0n.
T\u00ednh ch\ue000t c\ue005a c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\ue008 c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 th\u00e0nh ph\ue019n, t\u00ednh ch\ue000t c\ue005a c\u00e1c\ue003\u01a1n ch\ue000t v\u00e0
h\ue009p ch\ue000t c\ue005a ch\u00fang bi\ue01an thi\u00ean tu\ue019n ho\u00e0n theo chi\ue018u t\u0103ng\ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch h\ue001t nh\u00e2n.
2. B\ue016ng h\ue004 th\ue009ng tu\ue01an ho\u00e0n.
Ng\u01b0\ue020i ta s\ue023p x\ue017p 109 nguy\u00ean t\ue009 ho\u00e1 h\ue012c (\ue003\u00e3 t\u00ecm\ue003\u01b0 \ue00ac) theo chi\ue014u t\u0103ng d\ue01an c\ue00fa\ue003i\ue004n
t\u00edch h\ue002t nh\u00e2n Z th\u00e0nh m\ue007t b\ue016ng g\ue012i l\u00e0 b\ue00cng h\ue004 th\ue008ng tu\ue019n ho\u00e0n.
C\u00f3 2 d\ue002ng b\ue016ng th\u01b0\ue020ng g\ue01dp.

a. D\ue001ng b\ue00cng d\u00e0i: C\u00f3 7 chu k\u1ef3 (m\ue01ei chu k\u1ef3 l\u00e0 1 h\u00e0ng), 16 nh\u00f3m. C\u00e1c nh\u00f3m\ue003\u01b0\ue00ac chia th\u00e0nh 2 lo\ue002i: Nh\u00f3m A (g\ue001m c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\ue009 s v\u00e0 p) v\u00e0 nh\u00f3m B (g\ue001m nh\ue013ng nguy\u00ean t\ue009 d v\u00e0 f). Nh\ue017ng nguy\u00ean t\ue008\ue012 nh\u00f3m B\ue003\ue018u l\u00e0 kim lo\ue001i.

b. D\ue001ng b\ue00cng ng\ue01en: C\u00f3 7 chu k\u1ef3 (chu k\u1ef3 1, 2, 3 c\u00f3 1 h\u00e0ng, chu k\u1ef3 4, 5, 6 c\u00f3 2 h\u00e0ng, chu k\u1ef3 7\ue003ang x\u00e2y d\ue019ng m\ue00di c\u00f3 1 h\u00e0ng); 8 nh\u00f3m. M\ue01ei nh\u00f3m c\u00f3 2 ph\u00e2n nh\u00f3m: Ph\u00e2n nh\u00f3m ch\u00ednh (g\ue001m c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\ue009 s v\u00e0 p -\ue015ng v\ue00di nh\u00f3m A trong b\ue016ng d\u00e0i) v\u00e0 ph\u00e2n nh\u00f3m ph\ue01c (g\ue001m c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\ue009 d v\u00e0 f -\ue015ng v\ue00di nh\u00f3m B trong b\ue016ng d\u00e0i). Hai h\ue012 nguy\u00ean t\ue009 f (h\ue012 lantan v\u00e0 h\ue012 actini)\ue003\u01b0\ue00ac x\ue017p th\u00e0nh 2 h\u00e0ng ri\u00eang.

Trong ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh PTTH v\u00e0 trong cu\ue008n s\u00e1ch n\u00e0y s\ue002 d\ue00dng d\ue001ng b\ue00cng ng\ue01en.
3. Chu k\u1ef3.
Chu k\u1ef3 g\ue001m nh\ue013ng nguy\u00ean t\ue009 m\u00e0 nguy\u00ean t\ue000 c\ue00fa ch\u00fang c\u00f3 c\u00f9ng s\ue008 l\ue010p electron.
M\ue01ei chu k\u1ef3 \ue003\ue014u m\ue012 \ue003\ue019u b\ue006ng kim lo\ue001i ki\ue018m, k\ue01at th\u00fac b\ue006ng kh\u00ed hi\ue01am.
Trong m\ue00ft chu k\u1ef3,\ue003i t\ue018 tr\u00e1i sang ph\ue016i theo chi\ue014u\ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch h\ue002t nh\u00e2n t\u0103ng d\ue01an.
- S\ue009 electron\ue005 l\ue00dp ngo\u00e0i c\u00f9ng t\u0103ng d\ue01an.
- L\ue019c h\u00fat gi\ue013a h\ue002t nh\u00e2n v\u00e0 electron ho\u00e1 tr\ue021 \ue005 l\ue00dp ngo\u00e0i c\u00f9ng t\u0103ng d\ue01an, l\u00e0m b\u00e1n k\u00ednh

nguy\u00ean t\ue000 gi\ue016m d\ue01an. Do\ue003\u00f3:
+\ue008\ue007 \u00e2m\ue003i\ue004n\u03c7 c\ue00fa c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\ue009 t\u0103ng d\ue01an.
+ T\u00ednh kim lo\ue002i gi\ue016m d\ue01an, t\u00ednh phi kim t\u0103ng d\ue01an.
+ T\u00ednh baz\u01a1 c\ue00fa c\u00e1c oxit, hi\ue003roxit gi\ue016m d\ue01an, t\u00ednh axit c\ue00fa ch\u00fang t\u0103ng d\ue01an.

- Ho\u00e1 tr\ue021 cao nh\ue01bt\ue003 \ue009i v\ue00di oxi t\u0103ng t\ue018 I\ue003\ue017n VII. Ho\u00e1 tr\ue021 \ue003\ue009i v\ue00di hi\ue003ro gi\ue016m t\ue018 IV
(nh\u00f3m IV)\ue003\ue017n I (nh\u00f3m VII).
4. Nh\u00f3m v\u00e0 ph\u00e2n nh\u00f3m.
Trong m\ue007t ph\u00e2n nh\u00f3m ch\u00ednh (nh\u00f3m A) khi\ue003i t\ue018 tr\u00ean xu\ue009ng d\u01b0\ue00di theo chi\ue014u t\u0103ng
\ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch h\ue002t nh\u00e2n.

- B\u00e1n k\u00ednh nguy\u00ean t\ue000 t\u0103ng (do s\ue009 l\ue00dp e t\u0103ng) n\u00ean l\ue019c h\u00fat gi\ue013a h\ue002t nh\u00e2n v\u00e0 c\u00e1c electron\ue005 l\ue00dp ngo\u00e0i c\u00f9ng y\ue017u d\ue01an, t\ue015c l\u00e0 kh\ue016 n\u0103ng nh\u01b0\ue020ng electron c\ue00fa nguy\u00ean t\ue000 t\u0103ng d\ue01an. Do\ue003\u00f3:

+ T\u00ednh kim lo\ue002i t\u0103ng d\ue01an, t\u00ednh phi kim gi\ue016m d\ue01an.
+ T\u00ednh baz\u01a1 c\ue00fa c\u00e1c oxit, hi\ue003roxit t\u0103ng d\ue01an, t\u00ednh axit c\ue00fa ch\u00fang gi\ue016m d\ue01an.
- Ho\u00e1 tr\ue021 cao nh\ue01bt v\ue00di oxi (ho\u00e1 tr\ue021 d\u01b0\u01a1ng) c\ue00fa c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\ue009 b\ue00bng s\ue009 th\ue015 t\ue019 c\ue00fa
nh\u00f3m ch\ue015a nguy\u00ean t\ue009 \ue003\u00f3.
5. X\u00e9t\ue003o\u00e1n t\u00ednh ch\ue01bt c\ue00fa c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\ue009 theo v\ue021 tr\u00ed trong b\ue016ng HTTH.
Khi bi\ue017t s\ue009 th\ue015 t\ue019 c\ue00fa m\ue007t nguy\u00ean t\ue009 trong b\ue016ng HTTH (hay\ue003i\ue004n t\u00edch h\ue002t nh\u00e2n Z),
ta c\u00f3 th\ue006 suy ra v\ue021 tr\u00ed v\u00e0 nh\ue013ng t\u00ednh ch\ue01bt c\u01a1 b\ue016n c\ue00fa n\u00f3. C\u00f3 2 c\u00e1ch x\u00e9t\ue003o\u00e1n.:

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