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86191_04a

86191_04a

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Published by: api-3807416 on Oct 18, 2008
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4
M o ld st oP ro d u c ts
O v e r v ie w
I n
the m anufacture
o fm o ld e d
p ro d u c ts
t h e r e is a lw a y s a c h a lle n g e t o u tiliz e a d v a n c e d
te c h n iq u e s s u c h a s m o n ito rin g

a n d c o n tro l system s (C hap.7 ), s ta tis tic a l a n a ly s is , a n ds o o n . H o w e v e r, th e s e te c h n iq u e s a r e o n ly h e lp - f u l if t h e b a s i c o p e r a t i o n so f

m o ld in g

a re understood and characterized to ensure the e lim in a tio n o r sig n ific a n t re d u c tio n

of po-

te n tia l p ro b le m s . T h is u n d e rs ta n d in g e n c o m - passes factors such as m old design and op- e ra tio n , p la stic p e rfo rm a n c e d u rin g m e ltin g (T a b le4 -l),a n d th e o p e ra tio no f th e in je c tio n m o ld in g m a c h in e

(IM M ) to produce
c o s t-
p e rfo rm a n c e -e ffe c tiv e
p ro d u c ts
at a
p ro fit
(C haps.8a n d1 4 ).
Interrelationo f Plastic, Process, and Product

In o rd er to fabricate a cost-perform ance- effective m olded product and understand po- te n tia l

p ro b le m s
a n d
th e ir

s o lu tio n s , it is h e lp fu l to c o n s id e r th e re la tio n s h ip so f m a- c h in e

a n d
m old
c a p a b ilitie s ,
p la s tic s
p ro -
cessing variables, and product perform ance.
A
d is tin c tio n h a s t o b e m a d e b e tw e e n m a -
c h in e
c o n d itio n s a n d
p ro c e s s in g

v a ria b le s . M a c h in e c o n d itio n s in c lu d e o p e ra tin g te m - perature and pressure, m old and/or die tem - perature, m achine output rate, etc. Process- ing variables are m ore specific, such as the

m e lt c o n d itio n in th e m o ld , flo w r a te v s. te m -
perature, etc.
M o ld in g P ro c e ss W in d o w s

Process windows are the ranges of pro- cessing conditions, such as m elt tem perature, pressure, and shear rate, w ithin w hich a spe- c ific p la s tic c a n b e f a b r ic a te d w ith a c c e p ta b le o r o p tim u m

p ro p e rtie s b y a p a rtic u la r fa b -
ric a tin g p ro c e s s(1 ,7 , 5 1 5 ).A
w in d o w
is a
defined \u201carea\u201d or \u201cvolum e\u201d in the spaceo f
a processing

system \u2019s process control vari- a b le s . T h e w in d o w f o r a s p e c ific p la s tic p a r t c a n v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y if c h a n g e s a r e m a d e i n its d e s ig n a n d th e fa b ric a tin g e q u ip m e n t u s e d (C hap.8 ).A lso im p o rta n t is th e u n ifo rm ity of th e plastic m aterial (pellets, flakes, etc.). T he g re a te r th e u n ifo rm ity , th e e a s ie r it is to c o n - trol the process and im prove product qual- ity (see the section on Plastic M aterial and E q u ip m e n t V a ria b le s in C h a p . 1 1 ).

B y p lo ttin g in je c tio n p re s s u re ( r a m

p r e s - sure) vs. m old tem perature, a m olding area diagram (M A D ) is developed that show s th e best com binations of pressure and tem pera- ture to produce quality parts. T he size of the d ia g ra m

(F ig .4 -1 ) show s the m older\u2019s lati- tu d e in p ro d u c in g g o o d p a rts .T om old parts at th e lo w e s t c y c le tim e , th e m o ld in g m a c h in e w ould be set at the low est tem perature and highest pressure locationo n th is d ia g ra m .

2 2 1
2 2 2
4
M o ld st oP r o d u c t s
T a b le4 - 1
E xam pleso f plasticizing processing tem peratures'
P o ly m e r
P ro c e s s in g
T ,
9
T em perature,
T y p e
" F("C )
'F('C )
P o ly e th e re th e rk e to n e (P E E K )

P o ly p h e n y le n e s u lfid e (P P S )
P o ly a ry le n e k e to n e
P o ly a ry le n e s u lfid e

P o ly e th e rim id e (P E I)
P o ly a ry le th e r

P o ly e th e rs u lfo n e (P E S ) Polyam ide-im ide (P A I) P o ly im id e

S e m ic ry s ta llin e

S e m ic ry s ta llin e S e m ic ry s ta llin e A m orphous

A m orphous

A m orphous A m orphous A m orphous

P s e u d o th e rm o p la s tic
290 (143)

1 8 5 (8 5 ) 4 0 0 (2 0 4 ) 4 1 0 (2 1 0 )

V aries:
450 (232)
t o5 4 5 (2 8 5 )
476 (247)

510 (266) 470 (243) 4 7 0 (2 4 9 ) 482 (250)

5 3 6 (2 8 0 )
5 3 6 (2 8 0 )
6 5 0 (3 4 3 )
6 3 0 (3 3 2 )
7 0 0 -7 8 0
(3 7 1 -4 1 6 )
6 2 5 -6 5 0
(3 2 9 -3 4 3 )
V aries:
5 7 5 -6 5 0
(3 0 2 -3 4 3 )
t o6 5 0 -7 0 0
(3 4 3 -3 7 1 )
650 (343)
5 7 5 (3 0 2 )
650 (343)
6 8 0 (3 6 0 )
6 6 0 (3 4 9 )
6 6 0 (3 4 9 )
6 6 0 (3 4 9 )
T y p ic a l c o m m o d ityT P su s ea b o u t4 0 0 t o 5 5 0 'F(2 0 4t o2 8 8 'C )
If
d u e
t o
m a c h in e
a n d
p la s tic
v a ria b le s
re je c ts
develop, then
o n e
m oves
th e
m a-
c h in e
c o n tro ls
t o
a c h ie v e
h ig h e r
tem pera-

tures and/or low er pressures and thus restore q u a lity . T h is is a s im p lifie d a p p r o a c h t o p r o - d u c in g q u a lity p a rts , s in c e o n ly tw o v a ria b le s a r e b e in g c o n tro lle d . (T h is e x a m p le u s e s a th e rm o p la s tic ; w ith

a therm oset, to reduce cycle tim e the highest tem perature and pres- s u r e w o u ld b e u s e d , e tc .)

T h e n e x t s te p in th e m o ld in g -a re a
te c h -
n iq u e is to u se a th re e -d im e n s io n a l d ia g ra m
(F ig .4 -2 ).B y p lo ttin g m e lt te m p e r a tu r e v s.
I
-M o ld
te m p e ra tu re
F ig .4-1
M o ld in g a r e a d ia g ra m .
injection pressure vs.m old tem perature,one
o b ta in s a m o ld in g v o lu m e d ia g ra m
(M V D ),
p ro v id in g m o r e p re c is io n
c o n tr o l in s e ttin g
th e m achine.
D e v e lo p in g th e a c tu a l d a ta in v o lv e s slo w ly
increasing the ram

(in je c tio n ) p r e s s u r e u n til a v a lu e is o b ta in e d a t w h ic h t h e m o ld is ju s t filled o u t. T his is referred to as th e m inim um fill p r e s s u r e

f o r th a t c o m b in a tio n
of m ate-
rial, m old

tem perature, and m elt tem pera- ture.The ram pressure is then increased until t h e m o ld fla s h e s . T h is is lo g g e d a s t h e m a x i- m um flash pressure. T hese tw o pressure val- ues then represent a set of data points for one c o m b in a tio n o f m e lt a n d m o ld te m p e r a tu r e s .

N e x t, th e
m elt
te m p e ra tu re
is

c h a n g e d (leaving the m old tem perature constant),and a new

set of m inim um
a n d m a x im u m
p r e s -
s u re s d e te rm in e d . T h is is c o n tin u e d u n til th e
m a x im u m
a n d m in im u m
m elt tem peratures
are found.
T h e n
the mold

tem perature is changed, and all the above repeated until the m axi- m um

a n d m in im u m

m old tem peratures are f o u n d . O n c e th e d a ta a r e o b ta in e d , th re e - dim ensional M V D s are constructed.

M VDs
s h o w
th a t th e

m elt tem perature f o r in je c tio n m o ld in g p la s tic is a n im p o r ta n t v a ria b le

th a t
w as
n o t
e v id e n t
i n
tw o -
d im e n s io n a l M A D S . M V D s a r e u s e d w ith a ll
4
M o ld st o P r o d u c ts
2 2 3
4
.
I
9
' 0
1 0 0 0
8 0 0
s
2
6 0 0
5
4 0 0
-a?
ee
2 o oF
9
F ig . 4 -2
M o ld in gv o lu m e d ia g ra m s h o w in g th r e e
s te p s .

th e rm o s e ts a n d th e rm o p la s tic s . T h e sig n ifi- cance of the M V D approach lies in the fact th a t o n e e n d s u p w ith a d ra m a tic a n d e a s ily com prehended visual aid to analyzing three o f th e m o s t im p o rta n t v a ria b le s fo r in je c tio n m o ld in g -n a m e ly ,

in je c tio n p re s s u re , m o ld (o r b a rre l fo r th e rm o p la s tic s ) te m p e ra tu re , a n d m e lt te m p e ra tu re(1 ,7 ,2 8 3 ).

U s in g th is tw o - a n d th re e -d im e n s io n a l a p - p ro a c h fo r m a k in g m o ld in g d ia g ra m s ,y o u c a n a n a ly z e in je c tio n ra te , c a v ity p re s s u re , e tc ., and also consider w hether to use m anual or a u to m a tic p ro c e s s c o n tro ls .A sdiscussed in th is c h a p te r a n d C h a p .9 ,th e u s eo f a u to m a tic c o n tro ls m a k e s it e a s ie r to s e t c o n tro ls a n d e n - sure quality. O f course, som e m olds produce q u a lity p a rts ju s t w ith m a n u a l c o n tro ls ; m o s t

o fth e8 0 ,0 0 0 in je c tio n m o ld in g m a c h in e s in

th e U n ite d S ta te s u s e o n ly m a n u a l c o n tro ls . H ow ever, m ajor changes are occurring be- c a u s e th e a u to m a tic c o n tro ls c a n s ig n ific a n tly reduce cost and provide zero (or practically zero) defects.

C y c le T im e s
Ac y c le is th e c o m p le te re p e a tin g s e q u e n c e

of operations in a process or part of a process. O ne cycle tim e is the tim e period, or elapsed tim e , b e tw e e n a c e r ta in p o in t in o n e c y c le a n d th e s a m e p o in t in th e n e x t c y c le ; it is th e tim e to m old a part.A sa general guide, regard- less of the plastic processed, the average w all th ic k n e s s (in th o u s a n d th s of in c h e s ) m u lti- p lied by2 5 0 e q u a ls th e c y c le tim e in s e c o n d s .

T h e p ro b le m of s h o rte n in g th e c y c le tim e
lies principally in assessing all the difficulties
o fth e in je c tio n m o ld in g p ro c e s s d u rin g th e

d e s ig nofth e p a rt a n d th e m o ld . T h u s w h a t is n e e d e d is a d e v ic e f o r a c h ie v in g o p tim u m d e - signs of part and m old. Program system s that p ro v id e fo r c o m p u te r s im u la tio n of th e in je c - tio n m o ld in g p ro c e s s a r e u s e d fo r th is p u r- pose. O ne should keep abreasto f the avail- a b ility a n d p e rfo rm a n c e o f re le v a n t s o ftw a re

soth a t o n e c a n g a in in e x p e rie n c e . M o s t im -

p o rta n t a re p ro g ra m s to re d u c e th e cy cle tim e b y e v a lu a tin g th e a c tu a l p ro c e s s o p e ra tio n a l s e ttin g s ( s e e th e s e c tio n o n M o ld in g S im u la - tio n P ro g ra m s in C h a p . 9 ).

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