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Introduce Re in Psihologie

Introduce Re in Psihologie

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UNIVERSITATEA \u201cBABE\u015e-BOLYAI\u201d CLUJ-NAPOCA
FACULTATEA DE PSIHOLOGIE \u015eI \u015eTIIN\u0162ELE EDUCA\u0162IEI
CATEDRA DE PSIHOLOGIE
\u00ceNV\u0102\u0162\u0102M\u00c2NT LA DISTAN\u0162\u0102
PSIHOLOGIE GENERAL\u0102
- SEMESTRUL II -
Conf. Univ dr. Adrian Opre
Lector univ. dr. Aurora Szentagotai
CUPRINS
CREATIVITATEA \u015eI ARHITECTURA COGNITIV\u0102

1. INTRODUCERE
2. PRODUSUL CREATIV. DEFINI\u0162IA CREATIVIT\u0102\u0162II
3. PROCESUL CREA\u0162IEI \u015eTIIN\u0162IFICE
4. MODELAREA FACTORILOR INTELECTUALI AI PROCESULUI DE CREA\u0162IE
5. PROCESUL DE CREA\u0162IE COLECTIV

6. PERSONALITATEA CREATOARE
MOTIVA\u0162IA
1. NO\u0162IUNEA DE MOTIVA\u0162IE: MOTIV, TREBUIN\u0162\u0102, SCOP

2. GAMA MOTIVA\u0162IILOR CONDUITEI UMANE
3. CLASIFICAREA MOTIVELOR
4. MODELUL TOPOLOGIC \u00ceN DETERMINAREA CONDUITEI UMANE
5. FORMAREA \u015eI DINAMICA SCOPURILOR: ASPIRA\u0162IE \u015eI EXPECTAN\u0162\u0102

6. RELA\u0162II SEMNIFICATIVE \u00ceNTRE MOTIVA\u0162IE \u015eI PERFORMAN\u0162\u0102
PROCESELE EMO\u0162IONALE

1. FORMELE VIE\u0162II AFECTIVE
2. CARACTERISTICILE PROCESELOR AFECTIVE
3. DIMENSIUNILE PROCESULUI EMO\u0162IONAL

3.1. Modific\u0103ri organice, vegetative
3.2. Manifest\u0103ri comportamentale
3.3. Tr\u0103irile afective

4. TEORII ASUPRA EMO\u0162IILOR

4.1. Teoria intelectualist\u0103
4.2. Teorii fiziologice periferice
4.3. Teorii fiziologice centrale
4.4. Teorii cognitive fiziologice

5. SENSUL ADAPTATIV/NONADAPTATIV AL VIE\u0162II EMO\u0162IONALE
6. EMOTIVITATEA \u2013 TR\u0102S\u0102TUR\u0102 DE PERSONALITATE
PERSONALITATEA \u015eI DIMENSIUNILE EI PSIHOLOGICE
1. DEMERSURI TIPICE \u00ceN ABORDAREA PERSONALIT\u0102\u0162II
1.1. Modelul tr\u0103s\u0103turilor
1.2. Modelul factorial
2. CONCEPTUL DE PERSONALITATE
3. TEMPERAMENTUL
3.1. Defini\u0163ie \u015fi clasificare
3.2. Tipologia activit\u0103\u0163ii nervoase superioare
3.3. Determinarea temperamentului \u015fi a tipului de sistem nervos
4. CARACTERUL
4.1. Defini\u0163ie
4.2. Structura caracterului
4.3. Tr\u0103s\u0103turi pozitive \u015fi negative de caracter
5. APTITUDINILE

5.1. Defini\u0163ie
5.2. Predispozi\u0163iile native
5.3. Aptitudini \u015fi deprinderi

6. INTELIGEN\u0162A
6.1. Defini\u0163ie
7. APTITUDINI SPECIALE
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1. CREATIVITATEA \u015eI ARHITECTURA COGNITIV\u0102
Obiective:

\ue000S\u0103 defineasc\u0103 creativitatea \u015fi produsul creativ relief\u00e2nd caracteristicile celui din urm\u0103.
\ue000S\u0103 descrie procesul de crea\u0163ie dup\u0103 Wallas \u015fi fazele rezolv\u0103rii creatoare dup\u0103 Ponomariov
\ue000S\u0103 argumenteze rela\u0163ia dintre creativitate \u015fi problematizare
\ue000S\u0103 prezinte modelul structurii intelectuale elaborat de Guilford, detaliind factorul

flexibilitate adaptativ\u0103
\ue000S\u0103 explice modelul triadic al factorilor intelectuali ai creativit\u0103\u0163ii
\ue000S\u0103 cunoasc\u0103 factorii de personalitate implica\u0163i \u00een procesul creativit\u0103\u0163ii
\ue000S\u0103 identifice \u015fi s\u0103 descrie factorii materiali \u015fi psihosociali externi care constituie un climat
\u015ftiin\u0163ific creativ.
1.1. INTRODUCERE

\u00cen mod tradi\u0163ional psihologia a luat ca prototip al crea\u0163iei, crea\u0163ia de tip artistic. Actualmente \u00eens\u0103 crea\u0163ia \u015ftiin\u0163ific\u0103 ocup\u0103 prim-planul cercet\u0103rilor, de aceea, cele mai multe referiri vor fi la acest gen de crea\u0163ie, considerat ca prototip.

\u00cen ultimele decenii, creativitatea a devenit una din problemele de baz\u0103 ale psihologiei. \u00cen anii \u201950 J.P.Guilford putea inventaria doar 186 de lucr\u0103ri dedicate creativit\u0103\u0163ii \u00een perioada 1927-50, adic\u0103 0,153% din totalul cercet\u0103rilor psihologice. Dou\u0103zeci de ani mai t\u00e2rziu, J.Hlavsa identifica 2419 titluri referitoare la psihologia creativit\u0103\u0163ii, exprim\u00e2nd o cre\u015ftere exponen\u0163ial\u0103: 9,5% p\u00e2n\u0103 \u00een 1950, apoi 18%- \u00eentre 1950 - 1960 \u015fi 72,5% ap\u0103rute \u00een perioada 1960 - 970.

Pe l\u00e2ng\u0103 sporul cantitativ, studiile actuale asupra creativit\u0103\u0163ii dovedesc \u00eenc\u0103 dou\u0103 muta\u0163ii esen\u0163iale. Mai \u00eent\u00e2i se constat\u0103 - a\u015fa cum s-a ar\u0103tat - transferarea intereselor de cercetare de la crea\u0163ia artistic\u0103 spre crea\u0163ia de tip \u015ftiin\u0163ific. Printre cauzele interesului sus\u0163inut pentru crea\u0163ia \u015ftiin\u0163ific\u0103 men\u0163ion\u0103m: a) prestigiul deosebit de care se bucura \u015ftiin\u0163a \u00een lumea contemporan\u0103; b) explozia interna\u0163ional\u0103 si rapida ei perimare, ce poate fi contracarat\u0103 doar prin intensificarea crea\u0163iei; c) problemele vitale cu care se confrunta omenirea (ex.: limitele resurselor naturale) a c\u0103ror rezolvare reclama eforturi creative f\u0103r\u0103 precedent. Datorit\u0103 notei ridicate de subiectivitate \u015fi de aleatoriu a crea\u0163iei artistice, rezultatele cercet\u0103rilor consacrate acestui subiect \u0163in mai cur\u00e2nd de: \u201edocumentul anecdotic\u201d dec\u00e2t de date probante. \u00cen replic\u0103, crea\u0163ia \u015ftiin\u0163ific\u0103 se dovede\u015fte mult mai abordabil\u0103 din perspectiva aparatului conceptual de care dispune psihologia.

Cealalt\u0103 caracteristic\u0103 a cercet\u0103rilor recente din psihologia creativit\u0103\u0163ii, const\u0103 \u00een renun\u0163area la concep\u0163ia potrivit c\u0103reia aceasta este un fenomen de excep\u0163ie, apanajul oamenilor de geniu. Teoria \u201comului de geniu\u201d a f\u0103cut loc concep\u0163iei potrivit c\u0103reia creativitatea este o tr\u0103s\u0103tur\u0103 general-uman\u0103. A\u015fa cum scrie Vigotsky tot ceea ce dep\u0103\u015fe\u015fte - \u00een via\u0163a de toate zilele - limitele rutinei si cuprinde m\u0103car un dram de noutate, poate fi numit \u201cproces creator\u201d. To\u0163i oamenii pot fi distribui\u0163i\u2014la nivele diferite \u2013 pe o scal\u0103 continu\u0103 a creativit\u0103\u0163ii \u2013 sus\u0163ine Guilford. Aceasta nu \u00eenseamn\u0103 estomparea diferen\u0163elor calitative dintre produsele crea\u0163iei geniale \u015fi a celei cotidiene, ci \u00een\u0163elegerea faptului c\u0103 procesele de crea\u0163ie sunt analoage sau chiar identice. Diferen\u0163a de produse creative nu \u00eenseamn\u0103 neap\u0103rat diferen\u0163\u0103 de procese de crea\u0163ie.

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