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05/09/2014

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Introduction

Education is a word that we come across every day and an aspect that has a lot of impact in our social, economical even our psychological status. The history of education can be traced back to human origin and man\u2019s never ending passion for knowledge.

The wordeducation is derived from the Latineducare (with a shortu) meaning "to raise", "to bring up", "to train", "to rear", bringing up, raising. In recent times, there has been a return to, an alternative assertion that education derives from a different verb:e d u c a re (with a longu), meaning "to lead out" or "to lead forth".

Definition of education
Education has been defined from a multitude of perspectives and the real
essence of education is even today the subject of critical deliberations.
Some of the definitions of education from wikipedia are :
\ue000the gradual process of acquiring knowledge
\ue000Educational activity primarily involves the presentation of material by the

faculty to students who are learning about the subject matter. The material being studied is fundamentally well known material. Those activities known as teaching and training are included in this category.

\ue000the action or process of educating or of being educated; also: a stage of such a
process
\ue000the knowledge and development resulting from an educational process
\ue000the field of study that deals mainly with methods of teaching and learning in
schools

the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.

\ue000the act or process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills, as
for a profession.
\ue000the result produced by instruction, training, or study
\ue000The act or process of educating or being educated.
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\ue000The knowledge or skill obtained or developed by a learning process.
History of Education

The history of education is both long and short. In 1994, Dieter Lenzen, president of the Freie Universit\u00e4t Berlin and an authority in the field of education, said "education began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770". This quote by Lenzen includes the idea that education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before.

Education was the natural response of early civilizations to the struggle of surviving and thriving as a culture. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially.

When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating, trading, gathering food, religious practices, etc, formal education, and schooling, eventually followed. Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC.

History of education in India

India has a long history of organized education. The Gurukul system of education is one of the oldest on earth, and was dedicated to the highest ideals of all- round human development: physical, mental and spiritual. Gurukuls were traditional Hindu residential schools of learning; typically the teacher's house or a monastery. Education was free, but students from well-to-do families payed Gurudakshina, a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies. At the Gurukuls, the teacher imparted knowledge of Religion, Scriptures, Philosophy, Literature, Warfare, Statecraft, Medicine Astrology and History (the Sanskrit word "Itihaas" means History). The first millennium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing

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of higher education at Nalanda, Takshashila University, Ujjain, & Vikramshila Universities. Art, Architecture, Painting, Logic, Grammar, Philosophy, Astronomy, Literature, Buddhism, Hinduism, Arthashastra (Economics & Politics), Law, and Medicine were among the subjects taught and each university specialized in a particular field of study. Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy. Nalanda, being the biggest centre, handled all branches of knowledge, and housed up to 10,000 students at its peak. British records show that education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The subjects taught included Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics, Medical Science and Religion. The schools were attended by students representative of all classes of society. The current system of education, with its western style and content, was introduced & founded by the British in the 20th century, following recommendations by Macaulay. Traditional structures were not recognized by the British government and have been on the decline since. Gandhi is said to have described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree that was destroyed during the British rule.

Assessment of Education
Assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge,
skills, attitudes and beliefs
History of assessment

The earliest recorded example of academic assessment arose in China in 206BC when the Han dynasty sought to introduce testing to assist with the selection of civil servants. The objectivity of the assessment was questionable (it being oral and still subject to the whims of the assessors) but it was the first example of introducing merit to the selection process in place of favouritism. In 622AD the Tang dynasty administered formal written exams to candidates for the civil service; these exams lasted for several days and had a pass rate of 2% - and successful candidates were then subjected to an oral assessment by the Emperor. In Europe, tests were used during the Middle Ages to aid the selection of priests and knights, and school children were tested for their knowledge of the catechism. Oral exams were used to assess

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