Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
18Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Use of the OT in Revelation

Use of the OT in Revelation

Ratings:

4.0

(1)
|Views: 2,982|Likes:
Published by api-3735458

More info:

Published by: api-3735458 on Oct 18, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

To borrow language from Henri Stierlin, La v\u00e9rit\u00e9 sur L\u2019Apocalypse (Paris: Editions
1
Buchet/Chastel, 1972), 55.
Pierre Lestringant [Essai sur l\u2019unit\u00e9 de la r\u00e9v\u00e9lation biblique (Paris: Editions \u201cJe Sers,\u201d
2
1942), 148] suggests that one-seventh of the substance of the Apocalypse is drawn from the
words of the Old Testament.
1
DREADING THE WHIRLWIND: INTERTEXTUALITY AND
THE USE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT IN REVELATION:
by Jon Paulien
Andrews University
Published in AUSS, Fall of 2001
Responses from Beale and Moyise
Introduction

This article is focused on a major recent development in the study of John\u2019s use of the Old
Testament in Revelation. Within the last five years significant attention has been directed toward
the issue of whether literary critical categories such as intertextuality are appropriate to the way in
which the book of Revelation interacts with the Old Testament. This discussion is being framed
by an ongoing debate between Steve Moyise and G. K. Beale. After a brief review of the broader
field, specific attention needs to be given to that debate and its implications for future study of
Revelation.

I know of no one who would argue that an understanding of the OT is irrelevant to an
understanding of the Apocalypse. When reading the book one is plunged fully into the
atmosphere of the Old Testament. No other book of the New Testament is as saturated with the
1
Old. One cannot expect, therefore, to penetrate the symbolism of the book, therefore, without
2
careful attention to its Old Testament antecedents.
David Tabachovitz, Die Septuaginta und das Neue Testament, Skrifter Utgivna av
3

Svenska Institutet I Athen, series 8 vol. 4 (Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1956), 125-126; Brown,
1:cxxix. See further Raymond E. Brown, The Gospel According to John, 2 vols., Anchor Bible,
vols. 29 and 29a (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981), 1:cxxix; Joseph A. Fitzmyer,A

Wandering Aramean: Collected Aramaic Essays, Society of Biblical Literature Monograph
Series, no. 25 (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1979), 6-8, 38-43.
Selected literature reflective of the debate: R. H. Charles, The Revelation of St. John, 2
4
vols., International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1920), 1:lxvi; Ugo Vanni,
\u201cL\u2019Apocalypse johannique. Etat de la question,\u201d in L\u2019Apocalypse johannique et L\u2019Apocalyptique
dans le Nouveau Testament, Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Th\u00e8ologicarum Lovaniensium, vol. 53,
edited by J. Lambrecht (Gembloux: Leuven University Press, 1980), 31; Charles C. Torrey,The
Apocalypse of John (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958), 27-48; [Leonhard] P. Trudinger,
\u201cSome Observations Concerning the Text of the Old Testament in the Book of Revelation,\u201d
Journal of Theological Studies, n. s. 17 (1966):82-88; G. Mussies, The Morphology of Koine
Greek as Used in the Apocalypse of John, Supplements to Novum Testamentum, vol. 27 (Leiden:
E. J. Brill, 1971), 10-11; Yarbro Collins, Crisis and Catharsis, 47. Henry B. Swete,The
Apocalypse of St. John (London: MacMillian and Company, 1906), cl, clv; Pierre Prigent,
Apocalypse et liturgie, Cahiers Th\u00e9ologiques, 52 (Neuch\u00e2tel: Editions Delachaux et Niestl\u00e9,
1964), 10; James A. Montgomery, \u201cThe Education of the Seer of the Apocalypse,\u201d Journal of
Biblical Literature 45 (1926)73-74; D. Moody Smith, Jr., \u201cThe Use of the Old Testament in the

New, in The Use of the Old Testament in the New and Other Essays, edited by James M. Efird
(Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1972), 61; Yarbro Collins, Crisis and Catharsis, 47-49; A.
Vanhoye, \u201cL\u2019utilisation du livre d\u2019Ez\u00e9kiel dans l\u2019Apocalypse,\u201dB iblica 43 (1962):436-476.

Note the following discussions on this issue: R. H. Charles, Studies in the Apocalypse
5
(Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1913), 79-102; Heinrich Kraft, \u201cZur Offenbarung des Johannes,\u201d
2

The book seems, on the other hand, to resist efforts to understand its relationship to the
Old Testament. Rather than quoting or citing the Old Testament, the book interacts with it in the
most allusive manner. A word here and a phrase there, the barest hint of an echo in another place,
this is the substance of how Revelation evokes the Old Testament. And that is only the beginning
of complications. While there is general consensus that Revelation was written in Greek, there is

3
much dispute with regard to the language and text tradition of the Old Testament that John
utilized. The difficulty is compounded by the fact that there are a number of striking
4
irregularities in the Greek grammar of the Apocalypse. So having granted the central place of the
5
Theologische Rundschau 38 (1973):93; G. Mussies, \u201cThe Greek of the Book of Revelation,\u201d in
L\u2019Apocalypse johannique et L\u2019Apocalyptique dans le Nouveau Testament, Bibliotheca
Ephemeridum Th\u00e8ologicarum Lovaniensium, vol. 53, edited by J. Lambrecht (Gembloux: Leuven

University Press, 1980), 167-170; idem, The Morphology, 6; Tabachovitz, 125-126; Torrey, 13-
58. Martin McNamara (The New Testament and the Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch,
Analecta Biblica, vol. 27a, second printing with supplement [Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute,
1978], 109-117, 124-125, 189-190), for example, points to the Aramaic Targums as the
explanation for Rev 1:4 and many other irregularities.

Rudolf Halver, Der Mythos im letzten Buch der Bibel, Theologische Forschung, vol. 32
6
(Hamburg-Bergstedt: Herbert Reich Evangelischer Verlag, 1964), 15.
I use the term \u201cexegetical\u201d here in the sense of how ancient writers approached what they
7
considered to be an inspired text in order to make persuasive use of that text in their own
situation and for the sake of their own perceived audience.
For general studies of this subject see Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Essays on the Semitic
8
Background of the New Testament, Sources for Biblical Study, vol. 5 (Missoula, MT: Scholars
Press, 1974), 16-52, and Daniel Patte, Early Jewish Hermeneutic in Palestine, Society of Biblical
Literature Dissertation Series, no. 22 (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1975).
3
Old Testament in the Book of Revelation, it is still difficult to determine exactly how it is being
used there.
Scholars have sensed that although the Apocalypse is a veritable mosaic of Old Testament
words, themes, and passages, the end result is something entirely new. This creativity requires
6
interpreters to consider what kind of \u201cexegetical\u201d method the author of Revelation employs when
he draws on the language of the Old Testament. Other documents of the New Testament, where
7

direct quotations enable us gain a clear picture of the author\u2019s exegetical method, reveal that early
Christian writers made use of a number of different ancient approaches to the Old Testament,
approaches for which we have evidence also outside the New Testament.8

The exegetical method most strikingly common between New Testament writers and their
Jewish contemporaries is midrash, in which an author reflects homiletically on Scripture, often

Activity (18)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Joel L. Watts liked this
Joel L. Watts liked this
gabol7 liked this
genuis liked this
Dayrl Collins liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->